Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics

, Volume 29, Issue 17, pp 14981–14988 | Cite as

Highly porous carbon derived from litchi pericarp for supercapacitors application

  • Peiyu WangEmail author
  • Guoheng Zhang
  • Wanjun Chen
  • Haiyan Jiao
  • Liwei Liu
  • Xiangli Wang
  • Xiaoyan Deng
  • Qiong Chen


In this paper, highly porous carbon as an electrode material was derived from litchi pericarp (denoted as L-PC) via carbonization combined with KOH activation process. L-PC displayed high specific surface area (3438 m2 g−1) and high pore volume (1.92 cm3 g−1). The electrochemical capacitive properties of L-PC using KOH aqueous electrolyte were studied in three and two-electrode cells. The specific capacitance was 407 F g−1 in the three-electrode system at 1 A g−1, which was much higher than that of other biomass-derived porous carbon. In the two-electrode cell, the symmetric supercapacitors could work in a voltage window of 1.0 V. The highest specific capacitance of 70 F g−1 and energy density of 9.7 Wh kg−1 were exhibited in the two-electrode cells. About 98% of the initial capacitance was retained after 6000 cycles at 2.0 A g−1 in the cell. The highly porous carbon derived from litchi pericarp might act as an ideal electrode material for high performance supercapacitors.



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundations of China (Grant Nos. 21663026, 51462031, 11564034, 11764036), the National Natural Science Foundation of Gansu Province (Grant Nos. 1606RJZA064, 17JR5RA283) and Project of Science and Technology of Gansu Province (Grant No. 17YF1GA025). This work was also supported by the Central Universities Basic Service Fee (Grant Nos. 31920150010, 31920150243, 31920150244 and 31920170008).

Supplementary material

10854_2018_9636_MOESM1_ESM.doc (531 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 531 KB)


  1. 1.
    H. Feng, H. Hu, H. Dong, Y. Xiao, Y. Cai, B. Lei, Y. Liu, M. Zheng, Hierarchical structured carbon derived from bagasse wastes: a simple and efficient synthesis route and its improved electrochemical properties for high-performance supercapacitors. J. Power Sources 302, 164–173 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. Wang, P. Wang, X. Yan, J. Lang, C. Peng, Q. Xue, Promising porous carbon derived from celtuce leaves with outstanding supercapacitance and CO2 capture performance. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4, 5800–5806 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Y. Li, G. Wang, T. Wei, Z. Fan, P. Yan, Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped porous carbon nanosheets derived from willow catkin for supercapacitors. Nano Energy 19, 165–175 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    K. Sun, S. Yu, Z. Hu, Z. Li, G. Lei, Q. Xiao, Y. Ding, Oxygen-containing hierarchically porous carbon materials derived from wild jujube pit for high-performance supercapacitor. Electrochim. Acta 231, 417–428 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    D. Guo, C. Zheng, W. Deng, X. Chen, H. Wei, M. Liu, S. Huang, Nitrogen-doped porous carbon plates derived from fallen camellia flower for electrochemical energy storage. J. Solid State Electrochem. 21, 1165–1174 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    C. Peng, X. Yan, R. Wang, J. Lang, Y. Ou, Q. Xue, Promising activated carbon derived from waste tea-leaves and their application in high performance supercapacitors electrodes. Electrochim. Acta 87, 401–408 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    X. Hao, J. Wang, B. Ding, Y. Wang, Z. Chang, H. Dou, X. Zhang, Bacterial-cellulose-derived interconnected meso-microporous carbon nanofiber networks as binder-free electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors. J. Power Sources 352, 34–41 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    X. Zhang, C. Peng, R.-T. Wang, J.-W. Lang, Activated carbon from KOH and H3PO4-activation of olive residues and its application as supercapacitor electrodes. RSC Adv. 5, 32159–32167 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Q. Wang, M. Zhou, Y. Zhang, M. Liu, W. Xiong, S. Liu, Large surface area porous carbon materials synthesized by direct carbonization of banana peel and citrate salts for use as highperformance supercapacitors. J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 29, 4294–4300 (2018)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Y.-T. Li, Y.-T. Pi, L.-M. Lu, S.-H. Xu, T.-Z. Ren, Hierarchical porous active carbon from fallen leaves by synergy of K2CO3 and their supercapacitor performance. J. Power Sources 299, 519–528 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    C. Dai, J. Wan, W. Geng, S. Song, F. Ma, J. Shao, KOH direct treatment of kombucha and in situ activation to prepare hierarchical porous carbon for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes. J. Solid State Electrochem. 21, 2929–2938 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. Yang, Y. Tang, X. Huang, L. Wang, Q. Zhang, Activated porous carbon derived from walnut shells with promising material properties for supercapacitors. J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 28, 18637–18645 (2017)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    G. Fu, Q. Li, J. Ye, J. Han, J. Wang, L. Zhai, Y. Zhu, Hierarchical porous carbon with high nitrogen content derived from plant waste (pomelo peel) for supercapacitor. J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 29, 7707–7717 (2018)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Y. Zhai, Y. Dou, D. Zhao, P.F. Fulvio, R.T. Mayes, S. Dai, Carbon materials for chemical capacitive energy storage. Adv. Mater. 23, 4828–4850 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    C. Liu, F. Li, L. Ma, H. Cheng, Advanced materials for energy storage. Adv. Mater. 22, E28–E62 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    B. Xu, F. Wu, Y. Su, G. Cao, S. Chen, Z. Zhou, Y. Yang, Competitive effect of KOH activation on the electrochemical performances of carbon nanotubes for EDLC: balance between porosity and conductivity. Electrochim. Acta 53, 7730–7735 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    H. Zhang, G. Cao, Y. Yang, Carbon nanotube arrays and their composites for electrochemical capacitors and lithium-ion batteries. Energy Environ. Sci. 2, 932–943 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    A.G. Pandolfo, A.F. Hollenkamp, Carbon properties and their role in supercapacitors. J. Power Sources 157, 11–27 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Inagaki, New Carbon, Control of Structure and Functions (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2000)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    V. Presser, J. McDonough, S.-H. Yeon, Y. Gogotsi, Effect of pore size on carbon dioxide sorption by carbide derived carbon. Energy Environ. Sci. 4, 3059–3066 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Sevilla, A.B. Fuertes, Sustainable porous carbon with a superior performance for CO2 capture. Energy Environ. Sci. 4, 1765–1771 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Y. Zhu, S. Murali, M.D. Stoller, K.J. Ganesh, W. Cai, P.J. Ferreira, A. Pirkle, R.M. Wallace, K.A. Cychosz, M. Thommes, D. Su, E.A. Stach, R.S. Ruoff, Carbon-based supercapacitors produced by activation of graphene. Science 332, 1537–1541 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    E. Raymundo-Piñero, P. Azaïs, T. Cacciaguerra, D. Cazorla-Amorós, A. Linares-Solano, F. Béguin, KOH and NaOH activation mechanisms of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with different structural organisation. Carbon 43, 786–795 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. Jin, S. Tanaka, Y. Egashira, N. Nishiyama, KOH activation of ordered mesoporous carbon prepared by a soft-templating method and their enhanced electrochemical properties. Carbon 48, 1985–1989 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M.A. Lillo-Ródenas, D. Cazorla-Amorós, A. Linares-Solano, Understanding chemical reactions between carbon and NaOH and KOH: an insight into the chemical activation mechanism. Carbon 41, 267–275 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    H. Liu, K. Wang, H.A. Teng, Simplified preparation of mesoporous carbon and the examination of the carbon accessibility for electric double layer formation. Carbon 43, 559–566 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Y.A. Alhamed, H.S. Bamufleh, Sulfur removal from model diesel fuel using granular activated carbon from dates’ stones activated by ZnCl2. Fuel 88, 87–94 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    C. Hsieh, Y. Lin, Synthesis of mesoporous carbon composite and its electric double-layer formation behavior. Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 93, 232–239 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    K. Wang, H. Teng, The performance of electric double layer capacitors using particulate porous carbon derived from PAN fiber and phenol-formaldehyde resin. Carbon 44, 3218–3225 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    S. Chun, J.F. Whitacre, The evolution of electrochemical functionality of carbon derived from glucose during pyrolysis and activation. Electrochim. Acta 60, 392–400 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    K. Zhang, L.L. Zhang, X.S. Zhao, J. Wu, Graphene/polyaniline nanofiber composites as supercapacitor electrodes. Chem. Mater. 22, 1392–1401 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    R.B. Rakhi, D. Cha, W. Chen, H.N. Alshareef, Electrochemical energy storage devices using electrodes incorporating carbon nanocoils and metal oxides nanoparticles. J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 14392–14399 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Y. Wang, Z.Q. Shi, Y. Huang, Y.F. Ma, C.Y. Wang, M.M. Chen, Y.S. Chen, Supercapacitor devices based on graphene materials. J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 13103–13107 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Y. Gao, Y.S. Zhou, M. Qian, X.N. He, J. Redepenning, P. Goodman, H.M. Li, L. Jiang, Y.F. Lu, Chemical activation of carbon nano-onions for high-rate supercapacitor electrodes. Carbon 51, 52–58 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peiyu Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Guoheng Zhang
    • 1
  • Wanjun Chen
    • 1
  • Haiyan Jiao
    • 1
  • Liwei Liu
    • 1
  • Xiangli Wang
    • 1
  • Xiaoyan Deng
    • 1
  • Qiong Chen
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory for Electronic Materials of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission, College of Electric EngineeringNorthwest Minzu UniversityLanzhouPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations