Anomalous Hall effect in Co x Si1−x granular films deposited by magnetron co-sputtering

  • A. M. Su
  • L. S. Wang
  • Q. F. Zhang
  • J. Xie
  • Q. Luo
  • D. L. Peng


In this research, Co x Si1−x granular films with Co volume fraction (x) varying from 0.36 to 1 were prepared by using a magnetron co-sputtering method. The influence of x on the temperature-dependent longitudinal resistivity (\({\rho _{xx}}\)) and anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in Co x Si1−x granular films were systematically studied. The dependence of \({\rho _{xx}}\) on measuring temperature could be explained by the superposition of fluctuation-induced tunneling (FIT) process and temperature-dependent scattering. Interestingly, the contribution from scattering and FIT can be distinguished. The saturated Hall resistivity (\(\rho _{{xy}}^{A}\)) increased monotonically with decreasing x. In addition, the \(\rho _{{xy}}^{A}\) amplified nearly 26-fold as x decreased from 1 to 0.4. For the pure Co film (x = 1), the intrinsic and side jump mechanisms dominated the Hall transport. However, the deviation of classical scaling relation was observed in other samples, which was mainly ascribed to the influence of interfacial scattering.



This work was partially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51571167, 51771157 and 51371154), the National Key R&D Program of China (Grant No. 2016YFA020604).


  1. 1.
    P. He, L. Ma, Z. Shi, G.Y. Guo, J.G. Zheng, Y. Xin, S.M. Zhou, Chemical composition tuning of the anomalous Hall effect in isoelectronic L10FePd1−xPtx alloy films. Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(6), 066402 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    N. Nagaosa, J. Sinova, S. Onoda, A.H. MacDonald, N.P. Ong, Anomalous Hall effect. Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(2), 1539 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Y.Q. Zhang, N.Y. Sun, R. Shan, J.W. Zhang, S.M. Zhou, Z. Shi, G.Y. Guo, Anomalous Hall effect in epitaxial permalloy thin films. J. Appl. Phys. 114(16), 163714 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    S.S. Das, M.S. Kumar, Enhancement of anomalous Hall effect in Si/Fe multilayers. J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(37), 375003 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Y.M. Lu, J.W. Cai, H.Y. Pan, L. Sun, Ultrasensitive anomalous Hall effect in SiO2/Fe–Pt/SiO2 sandwich structure films. Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 022404 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. Karplus, J.M. Luttinger, Hall effect in ferromagnetics. Phys. Rev. 95(5), 1154 (1954)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Y.G. Yao, L. Kleinman, A.H. MacDonald, J. Sinova, T. Jungwirth, D.S. Wang, E. Wang, Q. Niu, First principles calculation of anomalous Hall conductivity in ferromagnetic bcc Fe. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(3), 037204 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. Feng, G. Wu, Y. Wang, Synthesis, preparation and mechanical property of wood fiber-reinforced poly (vinyl chloride) composites. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 17(6), 3859–3863 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    L. Berger, Side-jump mechanism for the Hall effect of ferromagnets. Phys. Rev. B. 2(11), 4559 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. Smit, The spontaneous Hall effect in ferromagnetics I. Physica 21(6–10), 877 (1955)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. Feng, G. Wu, C. Pan, The behavior of acid treating carbon fiber and the mechanical properties and thermal conductivity of phenolic resin matrix composites. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 17(6), 3786–3791 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Smit, The spontaneous Hall effect in ferromagnetics II. Physica. 24(1–5), 39 (1958)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    P. Xiong, G. Xiao, J.Q. Wang, J.Q. Xiao, J.S. Jiang, C.L. Chien, Extraordinary Hall effect and giant magnetoresistance in the granular Co–Ag system. Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(22), 3220 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    S.N. Song, C. Sellers, J.B. Ketterson, Anomalous Hall effect in (110) Fe/(110) Cr multilayers. Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(4), 479 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Z.B. Guo, W.B. Mi, R.O. Aboljadayel, B. Zhang, Q. Zhang, P.G. Barba, A. Manchon, X.X. Zhang, Effects of surface and interface scattering on anomalous Hall effect in Co/Pd multilayers. Phys. Rev. B 86(10), 104433 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    W.J. Xu, B. Zhang, Q.X. Wang, W.B. Mi, Z. Wang, W. Li, R.H. Yu, X.X. Zhang, Scaling of the anomalous Hall current in Fe100–x(SiO2)x films. Phys. Rev. B 83(20), 205311 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    G. Wu, H. Wu, K. Wang, Facile synthesis and application of multi-shelled SnO 2 hollow spheres in lithium ion battery. RSC Adv. 6(63), 58069–58076 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    A.B. Pakhomov, X. Yan, B. Zhao, Giant Hall effect in percolating ferromagnetic granular metal-insulator films. Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(23), 3497 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    F. Brouers, A. Granovsky, A. Sarychev, A. Kalitsov, The influence of boundary scattering on transport phenomena in ferromagnetic metal-dielectric nanocomposites. Phys. A. 241(1–2), 284 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    S.A. Crooker, E.S. Garlid, A.N. Chantis, D.L. Smith, K.S.M. Reddy, Q.O. Hu, T. Kondo, C.J. Palmstrom, P.A. Crowell, Bias-controlled sensitivity of ferromagnet/semiconductor electrical spin detectors. Phys. Rev. B 80(4), 041305 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J.P. Bonnelle, J. Grimblot, A.J. D’huysser, Influence de la polarisation des liaisons sur les spectres esca des oxydes de cobalt. J Electron Spectrosc. 7(2), 151 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    A.B. Mandale, S.K. Badrinarayanan, A.P.B. Sinha, Photoelectron-spectroscopic study of nickel, manganese and cobalt selenides. J Electron Spectrosc 33(1), 61 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    B.J. Tan, K.J. Klabunde, P.M.A.J. Sherwood, XPS studies of solvated metal atom dispersed (SMAD) catalysts. Evidence for layered cobalt-manganese particles on alumina and silica. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113(3), 855 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. Tabata, S. Fujii, Y. Suzuoki, T. Mizutani, M.J. Ieda, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (a-SixC1–x: H) prepared by the plasma CVD method. J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 23(3), 316 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    W.A.M. Aarnik., A. Weishaupt, A.V. Silfout, Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) and a modified Levenberg-Marquardt fit procedure: a new combination for modeling thin layers. Appl. Surf. Sci. 45(1), 37 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    M.P. Delplancke, J.M. Powers, G.J. Vandentop, M. Salmeron, G.A. Somorjai, Preparation and characterization of amorphous SiC: H thin films. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9(3), 450 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    S. Saliman, M. Delfino, Removal of native silicon oxide with low-energy argon ions. J. Appl. Phys. 70(7), 3970 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Q.F. Zhang, L.S. Wang, X.Z. Wang, H.F. Zheng, X. Liu, J. Xie, Y.L. Qiu, Y.Z. Chen, D.L. Peng, Electrical transport properties in Co nanocluster-assembled granular film. J. Appl. Phys. 121(10), 103901 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    P. Sheng, E.K. Sichel, J.I. Gittleman, Fluctuation-induced tunneling conduction in carbon-polyvinylchloride composites. Phys. Rev. Lett. 40(18), 1197 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    P. Sheng, Fluctuation-induced tunneling conduction in disordered materials. Phys. Rev. B. 21(6), 2180 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Y.H. Lin, S.P. Chiu, J.J. Lin, Thermal fluctuation-induced tunneling conduction through metal nanowire contacts. Nanotechnology. 19(36), 365201 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    D.Z. Hou, Y.F. Li, D.H. Wei, D. Tian, L. Wu, X.F. Jin, The anomalous Hall effect in epitaxial face-centered-cubic cobalt films. J Phys-Condens Mat. 24(48), 482001 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Q.F. Zhang, X.Z. Wang, L.S. Wang, H.F. Zheng, L. Lin, J. Xie, X. Liu, Y.L. Qiu, Y.Z. Chen, D.L. Peng, Size-dependent electrical transport properties in Co nanocluster-assembled granular films. Sci Rep-UK. 7(1), 11666 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of MaterialsXiamen UniversityXiamenPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations