Gamma radiation induced nickel oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanoflowers for improved dye-sensitized solar cells
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Gamma radiation (γ) exposure was used in dye-sensitised solar cell application to improve the power conversion efficiency. Nickel oxide/reduced graphene oxide (NiO/rGO) as the photoanode layer was prepared by chemical bath deposition method. The NiO/rGO samples were used as the control to analyse the NiO/rGO exposed to γ (NiO/rGO-γ). XRD, FESEM and UV–Vis measurement were conducted to study the structure, morphology and the optical analysis of the samples. NiO/rGO-γ nanoflowers were observed through FESEM images with improved morphology. The porosity of the thin films was also increased after the exposure of γ radiation. The increased energy band gap of NiO/rGO-γ annealed at 400 °C exhibited higher power conversion efficiency of 1.03% with J sc , V oc anf FF of 29 mA/cm2, 0.15 and 0.3 V, respectively.
This work was supported by Exploratory Research Grants Scheme (ERGS/1/2013/TK07/UKM/03/2) and Photonic Technology Laboratory, Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.
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