Effect of nitrogen passivation/pre nitration on interface properties of atomic layer deposited HfO2

  • Savita Maurya


Properties and quality of thin films depend on the methods used to deposit it. ALD is a surface dependent process and is one of the best deposition techniques because of the control we have on the deposition. In ALD, quality of initial few layers depends on substrate surface. A well prepared substrate surface reduces problem of nucleation. In this work, we have reported nitrogen passivation/pre nitration of silicon wafer as a surface preparation technique for atomic layer deposition. The results obtained have shown that the nitrogen passivation/pre nitration have profound effect on electrical characteristics. Nitrogen passivation has been done at two different temperatures, 350 and 500 °C. Crystal structures and phase information of deposited HfO2 thin films were studied in passivated and non passivated cases using GI-X-ray diffraction, elemental composition was investigated by EDX. Capacitance–voltage (C–V), current–voltage (I–V) and conductance–voltage (G–V) measurements were performed. The density of the interface state charges (Dit) was computed from C–V and G–V characteristics. Leakage current has been reduced almost two fold by utilizing this technique indicating change in properties of deposited oxide and its interface with the substrate. Decrease in interface trap charges has also been observed. Density of interface traps has been decreased from 2.87 × 10−12 to 1.57 × 10−12 cm−2 eV−1. Crystallographic phase of the deposited films are also found different in two different temperatures, 350 and 500 °C of passivation. Crystallographic phase of the deposited films were determined from analysis of measured XRD spectra and are found different in two cases.



Author would like to thank Prof. M. Radhakrishna of Indian Institute of Information Technology-Allahabad, India, for his support. Author would also like to thank CEN, IITB under INUP at IITB which have been sponsored by DIT, MCIT, Government of India. MCN for manuscript is IU/R&D/2017-MCN000224.


  1. 1.
    G. Baccarani, M.R. Wordeman, R.H. Dennard, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 31(4), 452 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Maurya, S. Shrivastava, J. VLSI Des. Tools Technol. 6(2), 1–4 (2016)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    D. Wilk, R.M. Wallace, J.M. Anthony, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5243–5275 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. Robertson, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 265 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    G. Bersuker et al., Grain boundary-driven leakage path formation in HfO2 dielectrics, 2010 Proceedings of the European Solid State Device Research Conference, Sevilla (2010), pp. 333–336.
  6. 6.
    H. Yamada, J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 21, 1493 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    H. Yamada, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 1847 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. Maurya, L.C. Tribedi, M. Radhakrishna, Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 071605 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. Maurya, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 28(23), 17442 (2017)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Maurya, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 27(12), 12796 (2016)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. Maurya, AIP Conf. Proc. 1731, 120034 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. Kahraman, E. Yilmaz, Radiat. Phys. Chem. 139, 114 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Maurya, AIP Conf. Proc. 1665, 120041 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. Choi, S. Kim, J. Kim, H. Kang, H. Jeon, C. Bae, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 900 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    R.J. Carter, E. Cartier, A. Kerber, L. Pantisano, T. Schram, S. De Gendt, M. Heyns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 533–535 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    H. Wong, V.M.C. Poon, C.W. Kok, P.J. Chan, V.A. Gritsenko, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50(9), 1941 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    H. Wong, H.I. Poon, Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1867 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    P.D. Kirsch, C.S. Kang, J. Lozano, J.C. Lee, J.G. Ekerdt, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4353 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    X.G. Liu, F. Zhu, N. Yamada, D.L. Kwong, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1798 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    B. Sen, H. Wong, B.L. Yang, A.P. Huang, P.K. Chu, V. Filip, C.K. Sarkar, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(5S), 3234 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    N. Umezawa, K. Shiraishi, T. Ohno, H. Watanabe, T. Chikyow, K. Torii, K. Yamabe, K. Yamada, H. Kitajima, T. Arikado, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 143507 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    K. Xiong, J. Robertson, S.J. Clark, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 044105 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    S. Maurya, B.R. Singh, M. Radhakrishna, AIP Conf. Proc. 1536, 1159 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    S. Maurya, B.R. Singh, M. Radhakrishna, IMPACT: Int. J. Res. Eng. Technol. 2(3), 121 (2014)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    S. Maurya, Study of Atomic Layer Deposited HfO2/Si Interfaces for Their Quality, Reliability and Radiation Based Interface Modifications, Ph.D. Dissertation (IIIT-Allahabad, India, 2015)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    L. Wang, B. Fan, Z. Wang et al., Mater. Sci. 27(2), 547–550 (2009)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    E.H. Nicollian, J.R. Brews, MOS (Metal Oxide Semiconductor) Physics and Technology (Wiley, New York, 2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electronics & Communication EngineeringIntegral UniversityLucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations