Identification and characterization of ß→α-Sn transition in SnCu1 bulk alloy inoculated with InSb

Abstract

In this paper, the allotropic transition of ß to α-Sn (so called “tin pest”) was identified with electrical resistance measurements. Samples were prepared from SnCu1 alloy using mechanical treatment of two different sample sizes, artificially inoculated with InSb and stored at −18°C for 9 weeks. The electrical resistance measurement showed that in the case of SnCu1 solder alloy the α-Sn transition has three stages: nucleation, growth and the saturation phase, when the transition is almost stopped. It was proven by focused ion beam cross-sectioning and Mösbauer spectroscopy that the developed α-Sn phase can enclose the metastable non-transitioned ß-Sn preventing its further transition and resulting the saturation phase of the phenomenon. In addition, the results point out that the rate of vertical expansion of the α-Sn into the sample body can be equivalent or higher than the horizontal expansion.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

References

  1. 1.

    P.-C. Wang, C.-P. Chang, M.-J. Youh, Y.-M. Liu, C.-M. Chu, M.-D. Ger, The preparation of pH-sensitive Pd catalyst ink for selective electroless deposition of copper on a flexible PET substrate. J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng. 60, 555–563 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    A. M. Molodets, S. S. Nabatov, Thermodynamic potentials, diagram of state, and phase transitions of tin on shock compression. High Temp. 38(5), 715–721 (2000)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    W. Plumbridge, Recent observations on tin pest formation in solder alloys. J. Electron. Mater. 37(2), 218–223 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    S. Gialanella, F. Deflorian, F. Girardi, I. Lonardelli, S. Rossi, Kinetics and microstructural aspects of the allotropic transition in tin. J. Alloys Compd. 474, 134–139 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    A. Skwarek, P. Zachariasz, J. Kulawik, K. Witek, Inoculator dependent induced growth of α-Sn. Mater. Chem. Phys. 166, 16–19 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    A. Skwarek, M. Sroda, M. Pluska, A. Czerwinski, J. Ratajczak, K. Witek, Occurrence of tin pest on the surface of tin-rich lead-free alloys. Solder. Surf. Mt. Tech. 23(3), 184–190 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    B. Illés, B. Horváth, Whiskering behaviour of immersion tin surface coating. Microelectron. Reliab. 53, 755–760 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    D. Di Maio, C. Hunt, On the absence of the ß to α Sn allotropic transformation in solder joints made from paste and metal powder. Microelectron. Eng. 88, 117–120 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    O. Semenova, H. Flandorfer, H. Ipser, On the non-occurrence of tin pest in tin–silver–indium solders. Scripta Mater. 52, 89–92 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    W. Peng, An investigation of Sn pest in pure Sn and Sn-based solders. Microelectron. Reliab. 49, 86–91 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    D. Giuranno, S. Delsante, G. Borzone, R. Novakovic, Effects of Sb addition on the properties of Sn–Ag–Cu/(Cu, Ni) solder systems. J. Alloys Compd. 689, 918–930 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    W.J. Plumbridge, Tin pest issues in lead-free electronic solders. J. Mater. Sci. 18, 307–318 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    M. Leodolter-Dworak, I. Stefan, W.J. Plumbridge, H. Ipser, Tin pest in Sn-0.5Cu lead-free solder alloys: a chemical analysis of trace elements. J. Electron. Mater. 39(1), 105–108 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    A. Skwarek, J. Kulawik, K. Witek, Method of evaluating the susceptibility of tin alloys to tin pest, 2013 polish patent application number: P404330, Patent number: 221478, 14 June 2013

  15. 15.

    K. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Jin, X. Fang, Y. Wan, Y. Zhang, L. Dai, High-quality InSb nanocrystals: synthesis and application in graphene-based near-infrared photodetectors. RSC Adv. 6(30), 25123–25127 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    T. Ito, A. Kadoda, K. Nakayama, Y. Yasui, M. Mori, K. Maezawa, T. Mizutani, Effective mobility enhancement in Al2O3/InSb/Si quantum well metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors for thin InSb channel layers. Jpn. J. App. Phys. 52(4S), 04CF01 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    A.Y. Shenouda, M.M. Rashad, L. Chow, Synthesis, characterization and performance of Cd 1–xInxTe compound for solar cell applications. J. Alloys Compd. 563, 39–43 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    S.A. Vanalakar, G.L. Agawane, S.W. Shin, M.P. Suryawanshi, K.V. Gurav, K.S. Jeon, J.H. Kim, A review on pulsed laser deposited CZTS thin films for solar cell applications. J. Alloys Compd. 619, 109–121 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    D. Di Maio, C.P. Hunt, Monitoring the growth of the a phase in tin alloys by electrical resistance measurements. J. Electron. Mater. 38(9), 1874–1880 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    A.A. Matvienko, A.A. Sidelnikov, The influence of relaxation of stresses occurring during the ß→α transformation of tin on the kinetics of the transformation. J. Alloys Compd. 252, 172–178 (1997)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    A. Skwarek, P. Zachariasz, J. Zukrowski, B. Synkiewicz, K. Witek, Early stage detection of ß to α a transition in Sn by Mössbauer spectroscopy, Mater. Chem. Phys. 182, 10–14 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The research leading to these results has received funding from the ProProgressio foundation.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Balázs Illés.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Skwarek, A., Illés, B., Horváth, B. et al. Identification and characterization of ß→α-Sn transition in SnCu1 bulk alloy inoculated with InSb. J Mater Sci: Mater Electron 28, 16329–16335 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-017-7539-5

Download citation