Skip to main content

Direct surface relief formation by e-beam in amorphous chalcogenide layers


Patterning processes in amorphous Se and \(\hbox {As}_{20}\hbox {Se}_{80}\) films at short electron beam pulses (from 200 ns to 100 ms) were studied for the first time. The surface reliefs occurring as after-pulses effects were recorded and analysed. Giant hillock formation was detected at about \(200\,\upmu \hbox {s}\) pulses while very small changes in surface morphology were observed at other pulse durations. The obtained data indicate that the strong increase in e-beam sensitivity of mechanical response (giant surface hillock formation) at about \(200\,\upmu \hbox {s}\) is due to some resonance effect. A qualitative description is given, relating these times to the characteristic generation and relaxation time of the defects in these materials, which illuminates the process of e-beam induced structural rearrangement. The measurement has been performed at room temperature and at \(-120\,^{\circ }\hbox {C}\) and only a 20% change in the maximal pattern height has been detected.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3


  1. K.K. Tanaka, Amorphous Chalcogenide Semiconductors and Related Materials (Springer, 2011)

  2. H. Fritzsche, Why are chalcogenide glasses the materials of choice for Ovonic switching devices? J. Phys. Chem. Solids 68, 878–882 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. K. Tanaka, Electron beam induced reliefs in chalcogenide glasses. Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 261 (1997)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. V. Takáts, F. Miller, H. Jain, C. Cserháti, S. Kökényesi, Direct surface patterning of homogeneous and nanostructured chalcogenide layers. Phys. Status Solidi C 6, S83–S85 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. C. Cserháti, S. Charnovych, P.M. Lytvyn, M.L. Trunov, D.L. Beke, Y. Kaganovskii, S. Kökényesi, E-beam induced mass transport in amorphous As20Se80 films. Mater. Lett. 85, 113–116 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. V. Kolbjonoks, V. Gerbreders, J. Teteris, a Gerbreders, Optical grating recording in ChG thin film by electron beam. J. Non-Cryst. Solids 377, 169–171 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. M.L. Trunov, C. Cserháti, P.M. Lytvyn, Y. Kaganovskii, S. Kökényesi, Electron beam-induced mass transport in AsSe thin films: compositional dependence and glass network topological effects. J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46, 245303 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Y. Kaganovskii, M.L. Trunov, C. Cserháti, P.M. Lytvyn, D.L. Beke, S. Kökényesi, Electron-beam induced variation of surface profile in amorphous As20Se80 films. J. Appl. Phys. 115, 183512 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. V. Bilanych, V. Komanicky, M. Lackov, A. Feher, V. Kuzma, V. Rizak, Fabrication of meso- and nano-scale structures on surfaces of chalcogenide semiconductors by surface hydrodynamic interference patterning. Mater. Res. Express 2, 105201 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. S. Elliott, A unified model for reversible photostructural effects in chalcogenide glasses. J. Non-Cryst. Solids 81, 71–98 (1986)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. H. Fritzsche, Toward understanding the photoinduced changes in chalcogenide glasses. Semiconductors 32, 850–854 (1998)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. R.A. Street, Non-radiative recombination in chalcogenide glasses. Solid State Commun. 24, 363–365 (1977)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. D. Vanderbilt, J. Joannopulos, Total energies in Se. III. Defects in the glass. Phys. Rev. B 27, 6311–6321 (1983)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. D. Vanderbilt, J. Joannopulos, Total energies of structural defects in glassy Se. J. Non-Cryst. Solids 60, 937–944 (1983)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. R.F. Egerton, P. Li, M. Malac, Radiation damage in the TEM and SEM. Micron 35, 399–409 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. J. Goldstein, D. Newbury, D. Joy, C. Lyman, P. Echlin, E. Lifshin, L. Sawyer, J. Michael, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis, 3rd edn. (Joseph Goldstein Springer, Springer US, 2003)

    Book  Google Scholar 

  17. J. Dresner, The photo-hall effect in vitreous selenium *. J. Phys. Chem. Solids 25, 505–511 (1964)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. V.I. Mikla, A.A. Baganich, A.P. Sokolov, A.P. Shebanin, Composition dependence of Raman bands in amorphous AsxSe. Phys. Status Solidi (b) 281, 281–286 (1993)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was supported by the TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/2/KONV-2012-0032, which is co-financed by the European Union and European Social Fund.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to C. Cserháti.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Cserháti, C., Csarnovics, I., Harasztosi, L. et al. Direct surface relief formation by e-beam in amorphous chalcogenide layers. J Mater Sci: Mater Electron 28, 7024–7028 (2017).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Dwell Time
  • Return Time
  • Chalcogenide Glass
  • Migration Energy
  • Chalcogen