The effect of electrodeposition technique on CdS thickness incorporated in CdS/CdTe-based solar cell has been investigated using all-electrodeposited g/FTO/n-CdS/n-CdTe/p-CdTe multilayer device configuration. The optical, morphological and structural properties of the electroplated CdS were investigated for CdS thicknesses between 50 and 200 nm. The observed CdS bandgap ranges between 2.42 and 2.46 eV. The morphological analysis shows full coverage of underlying g/FTO substrate for all CdS thicknesses except for the 50 nm which shows the presence of gap in-between grains. The structural analysis shows a preferred orientation of H(101) for all the CdS thicknesses except the 50 nm thick CdS which shows either a weak crystallinity or an amorphous nature. The fabricated solar cell shows a maximum conversion efficiency of ~11 % using CdS thickness ranging between 100 and 150 nm. These results show that although low CdS thickness is desirable for photovoltaic application, the effect of nucleation mechanism of deposition technique should be taken into consideration.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
I.M. Dharmadasa, Advances in Thin-Film Solar Cells (Pan Stanford, Singapore, 2013)
I. Dharmadasa, P. Bingham, O. Echendu, H. Salim, T. Druffel, R. Dharmadasa, G. Sumanasekera, R. Dharmasena, M. Dergacheva, K. Mit, K. Urazov, L. Bowen, M. Walls, A. Abbas, Fabrication of CdS/CdTe-based thin film solar cells using an electrochemical technique. Coatings 4(3), 380–415 (2014)
J.E. Granata, J.R. Sites, Effect of CdS thickness on CdS/CdTe quantum efficiency, in Conference Record Twenty Fifth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference 1996 (2000), pp. 853–856
J.S. Lee, Y.K. Jun, H.B. Im, Effects of CdS film thickness on the photovoltaic properties of sintered Cds/Cdte solar cells. J. Electrochem. Soc. 134(1), 248–251 (1987)
T. Dedova, O. Volobujeva, M. Krunks, V. Mikli, I. Gromyko, A. Katerski, A. Mere, Growth of ZnO rods on FTO electrodes by spray pyrolysis. IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng. 49(1), 012001 (2013)
N.A. Abdul-Manaf, A.R. Weerasinghe, O.K. Echendu, I.M. Dharmadasa, Electro-plating and characterisation of cadmium sulphide thin films using ammonium thiosulphate as the sulphur source. J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 26(4), 2418–2429 (2015)
A. Bosio, N. Romeo, S. Mazzamuto, V. Canevari, Polycrystalline CdTe thin films for photovoltaic applications. Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 52(4), 247–279 (2006)
S.D. Sathaye, A.P.B. Sinha, Studies on thin films of cadmium sulphide prepared by a chemical deposition method. Thin Solid Films 37(1), 15–23 (1976)
C. Wu, J. Jie, L. Wang, Y. Yu, Q. Peng, X. Zhang, J. Cai, H. Guo, D. Wu, Y. Jiang, Chlorine-doped n-type CdS nanowires with enhanced photoconductivity. Nanotechnology 21, 505203 (2010)
A.A. Ojo, I.M. Dharmadasa, Investigation of electronic quality of electrodeposited cadmium sulphide layers from thiourea precursor for use in large area electronics. Mater. Chem. Phys. 180, 1–15 (2016)
S. Caroli, V.K. Sharma, R. Parsons, J. Jordan, M. Dekker, Petr Vany´sek Table 1 electrochemical series (continued) Table 1 alphabetical listing (continued) (1989), pp. 23–33
A.A. Ojo, I.M. Dharmadasa, Electrodeposition of fluorine-doped cadmium telluride for application in photovoltaic device fabrication. Mater. Res. Innov. 19(7), 470–476 (2015)
A.A. Ojo, I.M. Dharmadasa, 15.3% efficient graded bandgap solar cells fabricated using electroplated CdS and CdTe thin films. Sol. Energy 136, 10–14 (2016)
H.I. Salim, V. Patel, A. Abbas, J.M. Walls, I.M. Dharmadasa, Electrodeposition of CdTe thin films using nitrate precursor for applications in solar cells. J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 26(5), 3119–3128 (2015)
J. Woodcock, A. Turner, M. Ozsan, J. Summers, Thin film solar cells based on electrodeposited CdTe, in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference 1991, Conference Record Twenty Second IEEE (1991), pp. 842–847
J. Tauc, A. Menth, States in the gap. J. Non-Cryst. Solids 8–10, 569–585 (1972)
M.A. Redwan, E.H. Aly, L.I. Soliman, A.A. El-Shazely, H.A. Zayed, Characteristics of n-Cd0.9 Zn0.1S/p-CdTe heterojunctions. Vacuum 69(4), 545–555 (2003)
N.S. Das, P.K. Ghosh, M.K. Mitra, K.K. Chattopadhyay, Effect of film thickness on the energy band gap of nanocrystalline CdS thin films analyzed by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Phys. E Low-Dimensional Syst. Nanostruct. 42(8), 2097–2102 (2010)
A.K. Mohsin, N. Bidin, Effect of CdS thickness on the optical and structural properties of TiO2/CdS nanocomposite film. Adv. Mater. Res. 1107, 547–552 (2015)
J. Han, C. Spanheimer, G. Haindl, G. Fu, V. Krishnakumar, J. Schaffner, C. Fan, K. Zhao, A. Klein, W. Jaegermann, Optimized chemical bath deposited CdS layers for the improvement of CdTe solar cells. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(3), 816–820 (2011)
M.A. Tashkandi, W.S. Sampath, Eliminating pinholes in CSS deposited CdS films, in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2012 38th IEEE (2012), pp. 143–146
A. Chandran, K.C. George, Phase instability and defect induced evolution of optical properties in Cd rich-CdS nanoparticles. J. Appl. Phys. 115(16), 164309 (2014)
W. Shockley, H.J. Queisser, Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p–n junction solar cells. J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510 (1961)
A. De Vos, Detailed balance limit of the efficiency of tandem solar cells. J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 13(5), 839–846 (2000)
S.G. Kumar, K.S.R.K. Rao, Physics and chemistry of CdTe/CdS thin film heterojunction photovoltaic devices: fundamental and critical aspects. Energy Environ. Sci. 7(1), 45–102 (2014)
J. Verschraegen, M. Burgelman, J. Penndorf, Temperature dependence of the diode ideality factor in CuInS2-on-Cu-tape solar cells. Thin Solid Films 480–481, 307–311 (2005)
The main author would like to thank Sheffield Hallam University, Ekiti State University, TETFund Nigeria for their support.
About this article
Cite this article
Ojo, A.A., Salim, H.I., Olusola, O.I. et al. Effect of thickness: a case study of electrodeposited CdS in CdS/CdTe based photovoltaic devices. J Mater Sci: Mater Electron 28, 3254–3263 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-016-5916-0
- Electrolytic Bath
- Cadmium Sulphide
- CdCl2 Treatment
- Parasitic Absorption