Advertisement

Predicted stresses in a ball-grid-array (BGA)/column-grid-array (CGA) assembly with an epoxy adhesive at its ends

  • E. Suhir
  • R. Ghaffarian
Article

Abstract

A simple, easy-to-use and physically meaningful predictive model is suggested for the assessment of the thermal stresses in a ball-grid-array (BGA) or a column-grid-array (CGA) system with an epoxy adhesive at the peripheral portions of the assembly. It is shown that the application of such a design can lead to a considerable relief in the interfacial stress. The paper is a continuation and an extension of the recently published paper, in which a low modulus solder was considered for the peripheral portions of the assembly. The important difference is that while the soldering temperature has been assumed to be the same for the solder material throughout the assembly, the peripheral epoxy adhesive is applied at an appreciably lower (curing) temperature than the solder at the assembly’s mid-portion. The numerical example has indicated that the application of the CGA technology enables one to achieve a 19.25 % stress relief in the case of an epoxy adhesive, while a 34.11 % stress relief could be expected in the case of a low modulus solder at the assembly ends. When a BGA technology is considered, the application of an epoxy or a low modulus solder at the peripheral portions of the assembly leads to the stress relief of about 14.42 % in the case of an epoxy and of about 12.80 % in the case of a low modulus solder. When CGA technology is used, the application of an epoxy at the peripheral portions of the assembly leads to about 8.70 % stress relief, while the application of a low modulus solder results in about 24.10 % relief. It is concluded that, with the yield stress in shear of 1.85 kgf/mm2 for the solder in the assembly’s mid-portion and 1.35 kgf/mm2—for the peripheral solder material, the application of the CGA technology in combination with an epoxy adhesive or a low modulus solder at the assembly ends might enable one to avoid inelastic strains in the solder, thereby increasing dramatically its fatigue lifetime, just because the low-cycle fatigue situation will be replaced in such a case with the elastic fatigue condition.

Keywords

Stress Relief Interfacial Shearing Stress Epoxy Adhesive Bonding Layer Solder Material 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    J.R. Martin, R.A. Anderson, Compliant diaphragm material. US Patent #4,837,068 (1989)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Z. Kovac et al., Compliant interface for semiconductor chip and method therefor. US Patent #6,133,639 (2000)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    E. Suhir, Electronic assembly having improved resistance to delamination. US Patent #6,028,772 (2000)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    E. Suhir, Device and method of controlling the bowing of a soldered or adhesively bonded assembly. US Patent #6,239,382 (2001)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    T.H. Di Stefano et al., Compliant microelectronic mounting device. US Patent #6,370,032 (2002)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    E. Suhir, Bi-material assembly adhesively bonded at the ends and fabrication method. US Patent #6,460,753 (2002)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    E. Suhir, Coated optical glass fiber. US Patent #6,647,195 (2003)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Z. Kovac et al., Methods for making electronic assemblies including compliant interfaces. US Patent #6,525,429 (2003)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    E.C. Paterson et al., Mechanical highly compliant thermal interface pad. US Patent #6,910,271 (2005)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Z. Kovac et al., Methods of making microelectronic assemblies including compliant interfaces. US Patent #6,870,272 (2005)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. Zeyfang, Stresses and strains in a plate bonded to a substrate: semiconductor devices. Solid State Electron. 14, 1035–1039 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    D. Chen, S.T. Cheng, T.D. Gerhardt, Thermal stresses in laminated beams. J. Therm. Stress. 5, 67–84 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    F.-V. Chang, Thermal contact stresses of Bi-metal strip thermostat. Appl. Math. Mech. 4(3), 363–376 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. Padovan, Anisotropic thermal stress analysis. Therm. Stress. I 1, 143–262 (1986)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    E. Suhir, Calculated thermally induced stresses in adhesively bonded and soldered assemblies, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Microelectronics, ISHM, Atlanta (1986)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    E. Suhir, Stresses in bi-metal thermostats. ASME J. Appl. Mech. 53(3), 657–660 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    E. Suhir, Die attachment design and its influence on the thermally induced stresses in the die and the attachment, in Proceedings of the 37th Electrical and Computer Conference, IEEE, Boston, (1987), pp. 508–517Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    E. Suhir, An approximate analysis of stresses in multilayer elastic thin films. ASME J. Appl. Mech. 55(3), 143–148 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. Kuo, Thermal stresses at the edge of a bimetallic thermostat. ASME J. Appl. Mech. 56, 585–589 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    E. Suhir, Interfacial stresses in bi-metal thermostats. ASME J. Appl. Mech. 56(3), 595–600 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    E. Suhir, Axisymmetric elastic deformations of a finite circular cylinder with application to low temperature strains and stresses in solder joints. ASME J. Appl. Mech. 56(2), 328–333 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    E. Suhir, B. Poborets, Solder glass attachment in cerdip/cerquad packages: thermally induced stresses and mechanical reliability, in Electronic Components and Technology Conference, 40th, IEEE, (1990), pp. 1043–1052Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J.W. Eischen, C. Chung, J.H. Kim, Realistic modeling of the edge effect stresses in bimaterial elements. ASME J. Electron. Packag. 112(1), 16–23 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    P.M. Hall et al., Strains in aluminum-adhesive-ceramic tri-layers. ASME J. Electron. Packag. 112(4), 288–302 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    A.Y. Kuo, Thermal stress at the edge of a bi-metallic thermostat. ASME J. Appl. Mech. 56(3), 585–589 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    C.A. Klein, Thermal stress modeling for diamond-coated optical windows, in 22nd Annual Boulder Damage Symposium, Boulder, (1990), pp. 488–509Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    J.T. Gillanders, R.A. Riddle, R.D. Streit, I. Finnie, Methods for determining the mode I and mode II fracture toughness of glass using thermal stresses. ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 112, 151–156 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    A.O. Cifuentes, Elastoplastic analysis of bi-material beams subjected to thermal loads. ASME J. Electron. Packag. 113(4), 355–358 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    H.S. Morgan, Thermal stresses in layered electrical assemblies bonded with solder. ASME J. Electron. Packag. 113(4), 350–354 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    T. Hatsuda, H. Doi, T. Hayasida, Thermal strains in flip-chip joints of die-bonded chip packages, in Proceedings of the EPS Conference, San-Diego (1991)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    E. Suhir, Mechanical behavior and reliability of solder joint interconnections in thermally matched assemblies, in Proceedings of the 42nd Electronic Components and Technology Conference, IEEE, San-Diego, (1992), pp. 563–572Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    J.H. Lau (ed.), Thermal stress and strain in microelectronics packaging (Van-Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1993)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    V. Mishkevich, E. Suhir, Simplified approach to the evaluation of thermally induced stresses in bi-material structures, in Structural analysis in microelectronics and fiber optics, ed. by E. Suhir (ASME Press, New York, 1993), pp. 563–572Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    E. Suhir, Approximate evaluation of the elastic thermal stresses in a thin film fabricated on a very thick circular substrate. ASME J. Electron. Packag. 116(3), 171–176 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    E. Suhir, Approximate evaluation of the interfacial shearing stress in circular double lap shear joints, with application to dual-coated optical fibers. Int. J. Solids Struct. 31(23), 3261–3283 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    K.E. Hokanson, A. Bar-Cohen, Shear-based optimization of adhesive thickness for die bonding. IEEE Trans. Compon. Hybrids Manuf. Technol. 18(3), 578–584 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    E. Suhir, Solder materials and joints in fiber optics: reliability requirements and predicted stresses, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on “Design and Reliability of Solders and Solder Interconnections”, Orlando, (1997), pp. 25–33Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    E. Suhir, Thermal stress failures in microelectronics and photonics: prediction and prevention. Future Circuits Int. 5, 20 (1999)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    E. Suhir, Adhesively bonded assemblies with identical non-deformable adherends: predicted thermal stresses in the adhesive layer. Compos. Interfaces 6(2), 62 (1999)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    E. Suhir, Predicted stresses in a circular substrate/thin-film system subjected to the change in temperature. J. Appl. Phys. 88(5), 2363–2370 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    E. Carrera, An assessment of mixed and classical theories for the thermal stress analysis of orthotropic multilayered plates. J. Therm. Stress. 23(9), 97–831 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Y. Gao, J.-H. Zhao, A practical die stress model and its applications in flip-chip packages, in Proceedings of 7th Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermo-mechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems, Las Vegas, (2000)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    W.-R. Jong, M.-L. Chang, The analysis of warpage for integrated circuit devices. J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 19(2), 64–180 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    E. Suhir, Analysis of interfacial thermal stresses in a tri-material assembly. J. Appl. Phys. 89(7), 3685–3694 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    J.-S. Bae, S. Krishnaswamy, Subinterfacial cracks in bi-material systems subjected to mechanical and thermal loading. Eng. Fract. Mech. 68(9), 1081–1094 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    J.-S. Hsu et al., Photoelastic investigation on thermal stresses in bonded structures, in SPIE Congre`s Experimental Mechanics, vol. 4537 (Beijing, 2002), pp. 170–173, 15–17 Oct 2001Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    H.B. Fan, M.F. Yuen, E. Suhir, Prediction of delamination in a bi-material system based on free-edge energy evaluation, in 53-rd ECTC Proceedings, (2003), p. 1160Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Y. Wen, C. Basaran, An analytical model for thermal stress analysis of multi-layered microelectronics packaging, in 54-th ECTC, (2004), pp. 369–385Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    D. Sujan et al., Engineering model for interfacial stresses of a heated bi-material structure with bond material used in electronic packages. IMAPS J. Microelectron. Electron. Packag. 2(2), 132–141 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    E. Suhir, J. Nicolics, Analysis of a bow-free pre-stressed test specimen. ASME JAM 81(11), 114502 (2014)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    E. Suhir, D. Ingman, Highly compliant bonding material and structure for micro- and opto-electronic applications, in ECTC’06 Proceedings, San Diego (2006)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    E. Suhir, D. Ingman, Highly compliant bonding material and structure for micro- and opto-electronic applications, in Micro and opto-electronic materials and structures: physics, mechanics, design, packaging, reliability, ed. by E. Suhir, C.P. Wong, Y.C. Lee (Springer, Berlin, 2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    E. Suhir, M. Vujosevic, Interfacial stresses in a bi-material assembly with a compliant bonding layer. J. Appl. Phys. D 41, 115504 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    E. Suhir, T. Reinikainen, On a paradoxical situation related to lap shear joints: could transverse grooves in the adherends lead to lower interfacial stresses? J. Appl. Phys. D 41, 115505 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    E. Suhir, “Global” and “Local” thermal mismatch stresses in an elongated bi-material assembly bonded at the ends, in Structural analysis in microelectronic and fiber-optic systems, symposium proceedings, ed. by E. Suhir (ASME Press, New York, 1995), pp. 101–105Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    E. Suhir, Predicted thermal mismatch stresses in a cylindrical bi-material assembly adhesively bonded at the ends. ASME J. Appl. Mech. 64(1), 15–22 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    E. Suhir, Thermal stress in a polymer coated optical glass fiber with a low modulus coating at the ends. J. Mater. Res. 16(10), 2996–3004 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    E. Suhir, Thermal stress in a bi-material assembly adhesively bonded at the ends. J. Appl. Phys. 89(1), 120–129 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    E. Suhir, Thermal stress in an adhesively bonded joint with a low modulus adhesive layer at the ends. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 3657–3661 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    E. Suhir, Interfacial thermal stresses in a Bi-material assembly with a low-yield-stress bonding layer. Model. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 14, 1421 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    E. Suhir, L. Bechou, B. Levrier, Predicted size of an inelastic zone in a ball-grid-array assembly. ASME J. Appl. Mech. 80, 021007 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    E. Suhir, A. Shakouri, Assembly bonded at the ends: could thinner and longer legs result in a lower thermal stress in a thermoelectric module (TEM) design? ASME J. Appl. Mech. 79(6), 061010 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    E. Suhir, On a paradoxical situation related to bonded joints: could stiffer mid-portions of a compliant attachment result in lower thermal stress? JSME J. Solid Mech. Mater. Eng. (JSMME) 3(7), 990–997 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    E. Suhir, Thermal stress in a bi-material assembly with a “piecewise-continuous” bonding layer: theorem of three axial forces. J. Appl. Phys. D 42, 045507 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    E. Suhir, Adhesively bonded assemblies with identical nondeformable adherends and inhomogeneous adhesive layer: predicted thermal stresses in the adhesive. J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 17(14), 1588–1606 (1998)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    E. Suhir, Adhesively bonded assemblies with identical nondeformable adherends and “piecewise continuous” adhesive layer: predicted thermal stresses and displacements in the adhesive. Int. J. Solids Struct. 37, 2229–2252 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    E. Suhir, R. Ghaffarian, J. Nicolics, Could thermal stresses in a BGA/CGA-system be evaluated from a model intended for a homogeneously bonded assembly? J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 27, 570–579 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Portland State UniversityPortlandUSA
  2. 2.Technical UniversityViennaAustria
  3. 3.ERS Co.Los AltosUSA
  4. 4.Jet Propulsion LaboratoryCalifornia Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA

Personalised recommendations