Predicted stresses in ball-grid-array (BGA) and column-grid-array (CGA) interconnections in a mirror-like package design

  • E. SuhirEmail author
  • R. Ghaffarian
  • J. Nicolics


There is an obvious incentive for using bow-free (temperature change insensitive) assemblies in various areas of engineering, including electron device and electronic packaging fields. The induced stresses in a bow-free assembly could be, however, rather high, considerably higher than in an assembly, whose bow is not restricted. The simplest and trivial case of a bow-free assembly is a tri-component body, in which the inner component is sandwiched between two identical outer components (“mirror” structure), is addressed in our analysis, and a simple and physically meaningful analytical stress model is suggested. It is concluded that if acceptable stresses (below yield stress of the solder material) are achievable, a mirror (bow-free, temperature-change-insensitive) design should be preferred, because it results in an operationally stable performance of the system.


Inelastic Strain Interfacial Shearing Stress Bonding Layer Solder Material Assembly Component 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    R.R. Tummala (ed.), Fundamentals of Microsystems Packaging (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2001)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    S.P. Timoshenko, Analysis of bi-metal thermostats. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 11 (1925)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    B.J. Aleck, Thermal stresses in a rectangular plate clamped along an edge. ASME J. Appl. Mech. 16 (1949)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. Strinivas, Analysis of Bonded Joints. NASA Technical Note D-7855 (1975)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    K. Roll, Analysis of stress and strain distribution in thin films and substrates. J. Appl. Phys. 47(7) (1976)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    F.-V. Chang, Thermal contact stresses of bi-metal strip thermostat. Appl. Math. Mech. 4(3) (1983)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    E. Suhir, Stresses in bi-metal thermostats. ASME J. Appl. Mech. 53(3) (1986)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    E. Suhir, Interfacial stresses in bi-metal thermostats. ASME J. Appl. Mech. 56(3) (1989)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    G.A. Lang et al., Thermal fatigue in silicon power devices. IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 17 (1970)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. Zeyfang, Stresses and strains in a plate bonded to a substrate: semiconductor devices. Solid State Electron. 14 (1971)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.H. Lau (ed.), Thermal Stress and Strain in Microelectronics Packaging (Van-Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1993)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    E. Suhir, Analysis of interfacial thermal stresses in a tri-material assembly. J. Appl. Phys. 89(7) (2001)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    J.H. Lau, S.W. Lee (eds.), Chip Scale Packages: Design, Materials, Processes, Reliability, and Applications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1999)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    E. Suhir, A. Shakouri, Assembly bonded at the ends: could thinner and longer legs result in a lower thermal stress in a thermoelectric module (TEM) design? ASME J. Appl. Mech. 79(6) (2012)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    E. Suhir, Thermal stress failures in electronics and photonics: physics, modeling, prevention. J. Therm. Stress. (2013)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    E. Suhir, D. Shangguan, L. Bechou, Predicted thermal stresses in a tri-material assembly with application to silicon-based photovoltaic module. ASME J. Appl. Mech. 80 (2013)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    E. Suhir, Thermal stress in through-silicon-vias: theory-of-elasticity approach. Microelectron. Reliab. 54 (2014)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    E. Suhir, S. Kang, J. Nicolics, C. Gu, A. Bensoussan, L. Bechou, Analytical stress model for the evaluation of thermal stresses in a cylindrical tri-material body with application to optical fibers. J. Electr. Control Eng. 3(5) (2013)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    E. Suhir, J. Weld, Electronic package with reduced bending stress. US Patent #5,627,407 (1997)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    E. Suhir, Arrangement for reducing bending stress in an electronic package. US Patent #6,810,241 (2001)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    E. Suhir, Device and method of controlling the bowing of a soldered or adhesively bonded assembly. US Patent #6,239,382 (2001)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    E. Suhir, Bow free adhesively bonded assemblies: predicted stresses. Electrotech. Informationtech. 120(6) (2003)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    E. Suhir, L. Bechou, B. Levrier, D. Calvez, Assessment of the size of the inelastic zone in a BGA assembly. 2013 IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, Montana, March 2013Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Portland State UniversityPortlandUSA
  2. 2.Technische Universität WienViennaAustria
  3. 3.Ariel UniversityArielIsrael
  4. 4.ERS Co. LLCLos AltosUSA
  5. 5.Jet Propulsion LaboratoryCalifornia Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA
  6. 6.Department of Applied Electronic Materials, Institute of Sensor and Actuator SystemsTechnische Universität WienViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations