Skip to main content

Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of PdO/TiO2 and Pd/TiO2 nanocomposites

Abstract

Sol–gel, sol–gel–hydrothermal and photodeposition methods were used to synthesize pure TiO2, PdO/TiO2 and Pd/TiO2 nanostructures. Citric acid was used as a stabilizer, reducing and capping agent, since it is green, available, clean and nontoxic. During the one of the steps, stearic acid was used as an organic solvent to obtaining homogenized sol. In the following, Pd/TiO2 nanostructures were synthesized by photodeposition in 0.1, 0.5 and 1 wt% Pd on the surface of P25 nanoparticles under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Product characterization was performed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic behaviors of pure TiO2, PdO/TiO2 and Pd/TiO2 nanocomposites were evaluated using the degradation of a Rhodamine B aqueous solution under UV light irradiation. Among them, excellent performance for Pd/TiO2 nanocomposite containing just 1 % palladium in photocatalytic dye degradation was observed and only after 20 min, 88 % of dye was degraded.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12

References

  1. A. Fujishima, K. Honda, Nature 238, 37–38 (1972)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. A.J. Nozik, Nature 257, 383–386 (1975)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. E. Borgarello, J. Kiwi, E. Pelizzetti, M. Visca, M. Gratzel, Nature 289, 158–160 (1981)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. M.R. Hoffmann, S.T. Martin, W. Choi, D.W. Bahnemann, Chem. Rev. 95, 69–96 (1995)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. A.L. Linsebigler, G. Lu, J.T. Yates, Chem. Rev. 95, 735–758 (1995)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. U. Diebold, Surf. Sci. Rep. 48, 53–229 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. X. Chen, S. Shen, L. Guo, S.S. Mao, Chem. Rev. 110, 6503–6570 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. X. Chen, S.S. Mao, Chem. Rev. 107, 2891–2959 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. K. Prabakar, T. Takahashi, T. Nezuka, K. Takahashi, T. Nakashima, Y. Kubota, A. Fujishima, Renew. Energy 33, 277–281 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. G.R. Dey, A.D. Belapurkar, K. Kishore, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 163, 503–508 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. C.-H. Chang, Y.-H. Shen, Mater. Lett. 60, 129–132 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. H. Kato, A. Kudo, J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 5029–5034 (2002)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. R. Asahi, T. Morikawa, T. Ohwaki, K. Aoki, Y. Taga, Science 293, 269–271 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. S.U. Khan, M. Al-Shahry, W.B. Ingler Jr, Science 297, 2243–2245 (2002)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. X. Shu, J. He, D. Chen, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 47, 4750–4753 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. T. Ihara, M. Miyoshi, Y. Iriyama, O. Matsumoto, S. Sugihara, Appl. Catal. B 42, 403–409 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. J.C.S. Wu, C.-H. Chen, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A. 163, 509–515 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. G. Strukul, R. Gavagnin, F. Pinna, E. Modaferri, S. Perathoner, G. Centi, M. Marella, M. Tomaselli, Catal. Today 55, 139–149 (2000)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. S. Castillo, M. Morán-Pineda, V. Molina, R. Gómez, T. López, Appl. Catal. B 15, 203–209 (1998)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. T. Lopez, R. Gomez, G. Pecci, P. Reyes, X. Bokhimi, O. Novaro, Mater. Lett. 40, 59–65 (1999)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. T. Reimer, I. Paulowicz, R. Röder, S. Kaps, O. Lupan, S. Chemnitz, W. Benecke, C. Ronning, R. Adelung, Y.K. Mishra, ACS Appl. Mater. Interf. 6(10), 7806–7815 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Y.K. Mishra, G. Modi, V. Cretu, V. Postica, O. Lupan, T. Reimer, I. Paulowicz, V. Hrkac, W. Benecke, L. Kienle, R. Adelung, ACS Appl. Mater. Interf. 7(26), 14303–14316 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. M. Haruta, S. Tsubota, T. Kobayashi, H. Kageyama, M.J. Genet, B. Delmon, J. Catal. 144, 175–192 (1993)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Y.J. Mergler, A. Van Alst, J. Van Delft, B.E. Nieuwinhuys, Appl. Catal. B 10, 245–261 (1996)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. J. Panpranot, K. Kontapakdee, P. Praserthdam, Appl. Catal. A 314, 128–133 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. R. Camposeco, S. Castillo, I. Mejía-Centeno, J. Navarrete, J. Marín, Mater. Charact. 95, 201–210 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. M. Maicu, M.C. Hidalgo, G. Colón, J.A. Navío, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 217, 275–283 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. F. Zhang, J. Chen, X. Zhang, W. Gao, R. Jin, N. Guan, Catal. Today 93–95, 645–650 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. A.A. Ismail, S.A. Al-Sayari, D.W. Bahnemann, Catal. Today 209, 2–7 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. A. Orlov, D. Jefferson, N. Macleod, R. Lambert, Catal. Lett. 92, 41–47 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. V. Subramanian, E.E. Wolf, P.V. Kamat, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 4943–4950 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. J.B. Zhong, J.Z. Li, F.M. Feng, Y. Lu, J. Zeng, W. Hu, Z. Tang, J. Mol. Catal. A Chem. 357, 101–105 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. D. Ghanbari, M. Salavati-Niasari, S. Karimzadeh, S. Gholamrezaei, J. Nanostruct. 4, 227 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  34. G. Nabiyouni, S. Sharifi, D. Ghanbari, M. Salavati-Niasari, J. Nanostruct. 4, 317 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  35. M. Panahi-Kalamuei, M. Mousavi-Kamazani, M. Salavati-Niasari, J. Nanostruct. 4, 459 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  36. F. Beshkar, M. Salavati-Niasari, J. Nanostruct. 5, 17 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. M. Goudarzi, D. Ghanbari, M. Salavati-Niasari, J. Nanostruct. 5, 110 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  38. S. Moshtaghi, M. Salavati-Niasari, D. Ghanbari, J. Nanostruct. 5, 169 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the council of University of Kashan for providing financial support to undertake this work by Grant No. 159271/620.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Masoud Salavati-Niasari.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Khojasteh, H., Salavati-Niasari, M., Abbasi, A. et al. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of PdO/TiO2 and Pd/TiO2 nanocomposites. J Mater Sci: Mater Electron 27, 1261–1269 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-015-3884-4

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-015-3884-4

Keywords

  • TiO2
  • Palladium
  • Photocatalytic Activity
  • Pure TiO2
  • Metal Palladium