Advertisement

Wetting behaviour of SAC305 solder on different substrates in high vacuum and inert atmosphere

  • C. Gonçalves
  • H. Leitão
  • C. S. Lau
  • J. C. Teixeira
  • L. Ribas
  • S. Teixeira
  • M. F. Cerqueira
  • F. Macedo
  • D. SoaresEmail author
Article

Abstract

The wettability between solder and substrate is a very important issue in reliability of soldering process. The contact angle θ is used to measure the degree of wetting. The contact angle of lead-free alloy Sn-3 % Ag-0.5 % Cu (wt%) was measured, as a function of temperature, for three different commercial surface finish substrates used in printed circuit boards (PCB): Sn, NiAu and Organic Solderability Preservative (OSP). The measurements were performed by the sessile drop method in two different atmospheres: high vacuum and inert gas. In high vacuum the results showed that on substrates of NiAu and OSP the solder started spreading suddenly at 225 °C and in Sn substrate the contact angle decreases slightly with temperature. In inert gas atmosphere the results showed different behaviours: the contact angle between molten solder in OSP and NiAu substrates is sensitive to temperature; and, in Sn substrate, the contact angle does not change with temperature. The NiAu and OSP substrates showed a better degree of wettability than Sn substrate, in inert atmosphere.

Keywords

Surface Tension Contact Angle Solder Joint Surface Finish Print Circuit Board 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the financial support provided through project SI I&DT Projeto em co-promoção No. 36265/2013 (Projeto HMIEXCEL—2013–2015).

References

  1. 1.
    M.F. Arenas, V.L. Acoff, Contact angle measurements of Sn-Ag and Sn-Cu lead-free solders on copper substrates. J. Electron. Mater. 33(12), 1452–1458 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Amore, E. Ricci, G. Borzone, R. Novakovic, Wetting behaviour of lead-free Sn-based alloys on Cu and Ni substrates. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 495(1–2), 108–112 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    V. Vuorinen, T. Laurila, H. Yu, J.K. Kivilahti, Phase formation between lead-free Sn–Ag–Cu solder and Ni(P)/Au finishes. J. Appl. Phys. 99(2), 023530 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    C. Leinenbach, F. Valenza, D. Giuranno, H.R. Elsener, S. Jin, R. Novakovic, Wetting and soldering behavior of eutectic Au-Ge alloy on Cu and Ni substrates. J. Electron. Mater. 40(7), 1533–1541 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    T. Chellaih, G. Kumar, K.N. Prabhu, Effect of thermal contact heat transfer on solidification of Pb–Sn and Pb-free solders. Mater. Des. 28(3), 1006–1011 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    C.-T. Lin, K.-L. Lin, Contact angle of 63Sn–37Pb and Pb-free solder on Cu plating. Appl. Surf. Sci. 214(1–4), 243–258 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    L. Boinovich, A. Emelyanenko, Wetting and surface forces. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 165(2), 60–69 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    F. Guo, S. Choi, J.P. Lucas, K.N. Subramanian, Effects of reflow on wettability, microstructure and mechanical properties in lead-free solders. J. Electron. Mater. 29(10), 1241–1248 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. Lee, S. Chen, H. Chang, C. Chen, Reactive Wetting between Molten Sn-Bi and Ni substrate. J. Electron. Mater. 32(3), 13–17 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    V.H. López, A.R. Kennedy, Flux-assisted wetting and spreading of Al on TiC. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 298(1), 356–362 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Satyanarayan, K.N. Prabhu, Reactive wetting, evolution of interfacial and bulk IMCs and their effect on mechanical properties of eutectic Sn-Cu solder alloy. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 166(1–2) 87–118 (2011)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    G. Humpston, D.M. Jacobson, Principles of Soldering (ASM International, Ohio, 2004)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    N. Eustathopoulos, M.G. Nicholas, B. Drevet, Wettability at High Temperatures (Pergamon, Oxford, 1999)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J.A. Warren, W.J. Boettinger, A.R. Roosen, Modelling reative wetting. Acta Mater. 46(9), 3247–3264 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    D. Bonn, J. Eggers, J. Indekeu, J. Meunier, E. Rolley, Wetting and spreading. Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(2), 739–805 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    E.E.M. Noor, N.M. Sharif, C.K. Yew, T. Ariga, A.B. Ismail, Z. Hussain, Wettability and strength of In–Bi–Sn lead-free solder alloy on copper substrate. J. Alloy. Compd. 507(1), 290–296 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    L. Zang, Z. Yuan, H. Xu, B. Xu, Wetting process and interfacial characteristic of Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu on different substrates at temperatures ranging from 503K to 673K. Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(11), 4877–4884 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    F. Gnecco, E. Ricci, S. Amore, D. Giuranno, G. Borzone, G. Zanicchi, R. Novakovic, Wetting behaviour and reactivity of lead free Au–In–Sn and Bi–In–Sn alloys on copper substrates. Int. J. Adhes. Adhes. 27(5), 409–416 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    R. Voitovitch, A. Mortensen, F. Hodaj, N. Eustathopoulos, Diffusion-limited reactive wetting: Study of spreading kinetics of Cu–Cr alloys on carbon. Acta Mater. 47(4), 1117–1128 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    G.W. Liu, F. Valenza, M.L. Muolo, G.J. Qiao, A. Passerone, Wetting and interfacial behavior of Ni–Si alloy on different substrates. J. Mater. Sci. 44(22), 5990–5997 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    L. Zang, Z. Yuan, H. Zhao, X. Zhang, Wettability of molten Sn–Bi–Cu solder on Cu substrate. Mater. Lett. 63(23), 2067–2069 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. Drelich, C. Fang, C.L. White, Measurement of interfacial tension in fluid-fluid systems, in Encyclopedia of Surface and Colloid Science, vol. 3, ed. by P. Somasundaram, A. Hubbard (Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, 2002), pp. 3158–3163Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J.J. Sundelin, S.T. Nurmi, T.K. Lepistö, E.O. Ristolainen, Mechanical and microstructural properties of SnAgCu solder joints. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 420(1–2), 55–62 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. Li, J. Karppinen, T. Laurila, J.K. Kivilahti, Reliability of lead-free solder interconnections in thermal and power cycling tests. IEEE Trans. Compon. Pack Technol. 32(2), 302–308 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    J. Han, H. Chen, M. Li, Role of grain orientation in the failure of Sn-based solder joints under thermomechanical fatigue. Acta Met. Sin. 25(3), 214–224 (2012)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    N. Sobczak, A. Kudyba, R. Nowak, W. Radziwill, K. Pietrzak, Factors affecting wettability and bond strength of solder joint couples. Pure Appl. Chem. 79(10), 1755–1769 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    C. Malcolm, J.D., D.D. Elliot, Interfacial tension from height and diameter of a single sessile drop or captive bubble. J. Chem. Eng. 58, 151 (1980)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    J.C. Bashforth, F. Adams, An Attempt to Test the Theory of Capillary Action (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1892)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    O. Río, A. Neumann, Axisymmetric drop shape analysis: Computational methods for the measurement of interfacial properties from the shape and dimensions of pendant and sessile drops. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 196(2), 136–147 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    V. Sklyarchuka, Y. Plevachuka, I. Kabanb, R. Novakovićc, Surface properties and wetting behaviour of liquid Ag–Sb–Sn alloys. J. Min. Met. Sect. B-Metall 48(3), 443–448 (2012)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Z. Moser, W. Gasior, A. Debski, J. Pstrus, SURDAT—Database of physical properties of lead-free solders. J. Min. Metall. Sect. B Metall. 43(2), 125–130 (2007)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    P. Protsenko, A. Terlain, V. Traskine, N. Eustathopoulos, The role of intermetallics in wetting in metallic systems. Scr. Mater. 45, 1439–1445 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    K. Suganuma, Advances in lead-free electronics soldering. Curr. Opin. Solid State Mat. Sci. 5, 55–64 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    O. Dezellus, N. Eustathopoulos, Fundamental issues of reactive wetting by liquid metals. J. Mater. Sci. 45(16), 4256–4264 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    T. Hetschel, K. Wolter, F. Phillipp, R.B. Gmbh, Wettability effects of immersion tin final finishes with lead free solder. (2008)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Gonçalves
    • 1
  • H. Leitão
    • 1
  • C. S. Lau
    • 1
  • J. C. Teixeira
    • 1
  • L. Ribas
    • 2
  • S. Teixeira
    • 1
  • M. F. Cerqueira
    • 1
  • F. Macedo
    • 1
  • D. Soares
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.University of MinhoBragaPortugal
  2. 2.Bosch Car MultimediaBragaPortugal

Personalised recommendations