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Effects of glycerin volume ratios and annealing temperature on the characteristics of nanocrystalline tin dioxide thin films

  • Imad H. KadhimEmail author
  • H. Abu Hassan
Article

Abstract

Nanocrystalline (NC) tin dioxide thin films have been synthesized via sol–gel spin coating method. The sol solution produces thin films that suffer from cracking at room temperature and at different annealing temperatures. Hence, the determination of the smallest value of glycerin is necessary to solve the cracking problem. Glycerin was added to the sol solutions with different volume ratios (0:1, 1:12, 1:8) at low temperature to enhance film porosity and to eliminate cracks. Temperature affects on the characteristics of NC SnO2 thin films, particularly particle size where the crystallization of SnO2 thin films obtained after annealing at 400 °C is a NC tetragonal rutile structure. With the increase of annealing temperature the crystallinity has enhanced, the crystallite size increased, and it was observed that both of the intensity and a blue shift of the A1g phonon peak increased at constant volume ratio of glycerin. Hence, these results indicated that (1:12) of glycerin volume ratio to sol solution volume ratio represents the optimum value for the fabrication of SnO2 thin films without cracks.

Keywords

SnO2 Increase Annealing Temperature SnO2 Thin Film Tetragonal Rutile Structure Annealed Thin Film 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was conducted under Research University (RU) Grant: 203/PFIZIK/6711197 the support from Universiti Sains Malaysia gratefully acknowledged.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of PhysicsUniversiti Sains MalaysiaPenangMalaysia
  2. 2.Ministry of EducationBaghdadIraq

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