Effects of glycerin volume ratios and annealing temperature on the characteristics of nanocrystalline tin dioxide thin films

  • Imad H. KadhimEmail author
  • H. Abu Hassan


Nanocrystalline (NC) tin dioxide thin films have been synthesized via sol–gel spin coating method. The sol solution produces thin films that suffer from cracking at room temperature and at different annealing temperatures. Hence, the determination of the smallest value of glycerin is necessary to solve the cracking problem. Glycerin was added to the sol solutions with different volume ratios (0:1, 1:12, 1:8) at low temperature to enhance film porosity and to eliminate cracks. Temperature affects on the characteristics of NC SnO2 thin films, particularly particle size where the crystallization of SnO2 thin films obtained after annealing at 400 °C is a NC tetragonal rutile structure. With the increase of annealing temperature the crystallinity has enhanced, the crystallite size increased, and it was observed that both of the intensity and a blue shift of the A1g phonon peak increased at constant volume ratio of glycerin. Hence, these results indicated that (1:12) of glycerin volume ratio to sol solution volume ratio represents the optimum value for the fabrication of SnO2 thin films without cracks.


SnO2 Increase Annealing Temperature SnO2 Thin Film Tetragonal Rutile Structure Annealed Thin Film 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was conducted under Research University (RU) Grant: 203/PFIZIK/6711197 the support from Universiti Sains Malaysia gratefully acknowledged.


  1. 1.
    A. Dieguez et al., The complete Raman spectrum of nanometric SnO2 particles. J. Appl. Phys. 90(3), 1550–1557 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Aziz, S.S. Abbas, W.R.W. Baharom, Size-controlled synthesis of SnO2 nanoparticles by sol–gel method. Mater. Lett. 91, 31–34 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    J.S. Jeng, The influence of annealing atmosphere on the material properties of sol–gel derived SnO2: Sb films before and after annealing. Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(16), 5981–5986 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. Liu, S. Gong, L. Quan, Z. Deng, H. Liu, D. Zhou, Influences of cooling rate on gas sensitive tin oxide thin films and a model of gradient distributed oxygen vacancies in SnO2 crystallites. Sens. Actuators B 145(2), 657–666 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    S.H. Luo et al., Vacuum electron field emission from SnO2 nanowhiskers synthesized by thermal evaporation. Nanotechnology 15(11), 1424 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Y. Liu, E. Koep, M. Liu, A highly sensitive and fast-responding SnO2 sensor fabricated by combustion chemical vapor deposition. Chem. Mater. 17(15), 3997–4000 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    X. Liu, J. Iqbal, Z. Wa, B. He, R. Yu, Structure and room-temperature ferromagnetism of Zn-doped SnO2 nanorods prepared by solvothermal method. J. Phys. Chem. C 114(11), 4790–4796 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. Chacko, M.J. Bushiri, V.K. Vaidyan, Photoluminescence studies of spray pyrolytically grown nanostructured tin oxide semiconductor thin films on glass substrates. J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(21), 4540 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M.A. Gubbins, V. Casey, S.B. Newcomb, Nanostructural characterisation of SnO2 thin films prepared by reactive rf magnetron sputtering of tin. Thin Solid Films 405(1), 270–275 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Gnanam, V. Rajendran, Luminescence properties of EG-assisted SnO2 nanoparticles by sol–gel process. Dig. J. Nanomater. Biostruct. 5(3), 699–704 (2010)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    H. Köse, A.O. Aydin, H. Akbulut, Sol–gel synthesis of nanostructured SnO2 thin film anodes for Li-ion batteries. Acta Phys. Pol. A 121(1), 227–229 (2012)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. Gong, J. Liu, J. Xia, L. Quan, H. Liu, Gas sensing characteristics of SnO2 thin films and analyses of sensor response by the gas diffusion theory. Mater. Sci. Eng. B 164(2), 85–90 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    R. Adnan, N.A. Rohana, I.A. Rahman, Synthesis and characterization of high surface area tin oxide nanoparticles via the sol–gel method as a catalyst for the hydrogenation of styrene. J. Chin. Chem. Soc. 57(2), 222–229 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Y. Li, W. Yin, R. Deng, R. Chen, J. Chen, Q. Yan, Realizing a SnO2-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode via breaking the dipole-forbidden rule. NPG Asia Mater. 4(11), e30 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    G. Sakai, N.S. Baik, N. Miura, N. Yamazoe, Gas sensing properties of tin oxide thin films fabricated from hydrothermally treated nanoparticles: dependence of CO and H2 response on film thickness. Sens. Actuators B 77(1), 116–121 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    C. Ke, W. Zhu, J.S. Pun, Z. Yang, Annealing temperature dependent oxygen vacancy behavior in SnO2 thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition. Curr. Appl. Phys. 11(3), S306–S309 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    L.D. Khanh, N.T. Binh, L.T. Binh, N.N. Liong, SnO2 nanostructures synthesized by using a thermal evaporation method. J. Korean Phys. Soc. 52, 1689–1692 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    P. Lian, X. Zhu, S. Liang, Z. Li, W. Yang, H. Wang, High reversible capacity of SnO2 graphene nanocomposite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Electrochim. Acta 56(12), 4532–4539 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Ristić, M. Ivanda, S. Popović, S. Musić, Dependence of nanocrystalline SnO2 particle size on synthesis route. J. Non-Cryst. Solids 303(2), 270–280 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of PhysicsUniversiti Sains MalaysiaPenangMalaysia
  2. 2.Ministry of EducationBaghdadIraq

Personalised recommendations