Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

The properties of an activated carbon-containing agarose film for the amelioration of 2-amino acetophenone malodour as produced in chronic wounds infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa

  • Materials for life sciences
  • Published:
Journal of Materials Science Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Malodorous chronic wounds are associated with significant patient morbidity and can be responsible for patient social isolation and depression. A new material with favourable physical properties for easy application to difficult-to-dress bodily surfaces was tested for its ability to reduce the human detection of malodorous 2-aminoacetophenone (2-AAP), the dominant odour associated with chronic ulcers infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The material consisted of activated carbon (AC) particles held within a plasticised agarose (PA) film. This material, PA-AC, was relatively thin and could be folded and cut to shape without appreciable loss of the AC particulates. In a study using human volunteers, the intensity of 2-AAP odour was (strongly) significantly lower for the PA-AC material when compared with controls. Additionally, mechanical studies indicated that the presence of AC did not alter the maximum load, extension at maximum load, or percentage elongation of the PA films, with no statistically significant difference between PA-AC and PA. Supplementation of the agarose films (with or without AC) with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) enabled fluid handling to be increased by 176 and 163%, respectively. PA-AC, PA and PA-AC-CMC, PA-CMC allowed water vapour transmission at a rate previously reported to promote wound healing, while preventing tissue maceration caused by excessive sweat retention. A range of agarose films with variable odour and fluid handling properties are envisaged for further development towards wound management applications.

Graphical abstract

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Figure 1
Figure 2

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Kerr M, Barron E, Chadwick P, Evans T, Kong WM, Rayman G et al (2019) The cost of diabetic foot ulcers and amputations to the National Health Service in England. Diabet Med 36(8):995–1002

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Harrison MB, Graham ID, Friedberg E, Lorimer K, Vandevelde-Coke S (2001) Regional planning study. Assessing the population with leg and foot ulcers. Can Nurse 97(2):18–23.

  3. Elstone (2020) Does venous intervention combined with compression therapy improve outcomes for patients with venous ulceration? Wounds UK 16(1):20–25.

  4. Phillips CJ, Humphreys I, Fletcher J, Harding K, Chamberlain G, Macey S (2016) Estimating the costs associated with the management of patients with chronic wounds using linked routine data. Int Wound J 13(6):1193–1197

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Guest JF, Vowden K, Vowden P (2017) The health economic burden that acute and chronic wounds impose on an average clinical commissioning group/health board in the UK. J Wound Care 26(6):292–303

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Guest JF, Ayoub N, McIlwraith T, Uchegbu I, Gerrish A, Weidlich D et al (2015) Health economic burden that wounds impose on the National Health Service in the UK. BMJ Open 5(12):e009283

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Zarghooni K, Bredow J, Siewe J, Deutloff N, Meyer HS, Lohmann C (2015) Is the use of modern versus conventional wound dressings warranted after primary knee and hip arthroplasty? Results of a prospective comparative study. Acta Orthop Belg 81(4):768–775

    Google Scholar 

  8. Guttormsen K (2018) This is your early warning wake-up call. Diabetic Foot J 21(3):172–179

    Google Scholar 

  9. Edwards JV (2018) Microbiology and malodorous wounds. Wounds UK 14(4):72–75

    Google Scholar 

  10. He X, Dai L, Ye L, Sun X, Enoch O, Hu R, Zan X, Lin F, Shen J (2022) A Vehicle-free antimicrobial polymer hybrid gold nanoparticle as synergistically therapeutic platforms for Staphylococcus aureus infected wound healing. Adv Sci 9:2105223. https://doi.org/10.1002/advs.202105223

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Rodriguez-Arguello J, Lienhard K, Patel P, Geransar R, Somayaji R, Parsons L, Conly J, Ho C (2018) A scoping review of the use of silver-impregnated dressings for the treatment of chronic wounds. Ostomy Wound Manage 64(3):14–31 (PMID: 29584609)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Dumville JC, Lipsky BA, Hoey C, Cruciani M, Fiscon M, Xia J (2017) Topical antimicrobial agents for treating foot ulcers in people with diabetes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 6(6):CD011038. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD011038.pub2. PMID: 28613416; PMCID: PMC6481886.

  13. Qian Y, Zheng Y, Jin J, Wu X, Xu K, Dai M, Niu Q, Zheng H, He X, Shen J (2022) Immunoregulation in diabetic wound repair with a photoenhanced glycyrrhizic acid hydrogel scaffold. Adv Mater, 2200521. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.202200521

  14. Kharaziha M, Baidya A, Annabi N (2021) Rational design of immunomodulatory hydrogels for chronic wound healing. Adv Mater 33(39):e2100176. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.202100176. Epub 2021 Jul 12. PMID: 34251690; PMCID: PMC8489436.

  15. Probst S (2015) Wounds with exudate and odour. British J Nursing 24(Sup6):S22.

  16. Lindsay E (2020) Celebrating a collaborative-care approach within the Leg Club network. Wounds UK 16(1):116–117

    Google Scholar 

  17. Briard B, Heddergott C, Latgé JP (2016) Volatile Compounds Emitted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Stimulate Growth of the Fungal Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. mBio. 2016;7(2):e00219.

  18. Fletcher J, Edwards-Jones V, Fumarola S, Milne J, Ousey K, Tickle J, Gray J, Weston V (2020) Best practice statement: antimicrobial Stewardship strategies for wound management. Wounds UK. 2020 https://www.wounds-uk.com/resources/details/best-practice-statement-antimicrobial-stewardship-strategies-wound-management

  19. Cowen T (2021) The Wound Care Handbook. 2021–2022. In: Cowen T, (ed) MA Healthcare, pp 246 – 248. https://www.woundcarehandbook.com/categories

  20. Thomas S, Fisher B, Fram PJ, Waring MJ (1998) Odour-absorbing dressings. J Wound Care 7(5):246–250

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Gethin G, Grocott P, Probst S, Clarke E (2014) Current practice in the management of wound odour: an international survey. Int J Nurs Stud 51(6):865–874

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Shamsuri A, Daik R (2012) Plasticizing effect of choline chloride/urea eutectic-based ionic liquid on physicochemical properties of agarose films. BioResources, p 7.

  23. BS EN 13726-1 (2002) Test methods for primary wound dressings: aspects of absorbency. British Standards Online. https://shop.bsigroup.com/products/test-methods-for-primary-wound-dressings-odour-control/standard

  24. Fletcher J (2007) Dressings: Cutting and application guide. World Wide Wounds. http://www.worldwidewounds.com/2007/may/Fletcher/Fletcher-Dressings-Cutting-Guide.html

  25. Wlaschin KF, Ninkovic J, Griesgraber GW, Colak Atan S, Young AJ, Pereira JM et al (2019) The impact of first-aid dressing design on healing of porcine partial thickness wounds. Wound Repair Regen 27(6):622–633

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Wu P, Nelson EA, Reid WH, Ruckley CV, Gaylor JD (1996) Water vapour transmission rates in burns and chronic leg ulcers: influence of wound dressings and comparison with in vitro evaluation. Biomaterials 17(14):1373–1377

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Xu R, Xia H, He W, Li Z, Zhao J, Liu B et al (2016) Controlled water vapor transmission rate promotes wound-healing via wound re-epithelialization and contraction enhancement. Sci Rep 6:24596

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Uzun M, Anand SC, Shah T (2013) Study of the pH and physical performance characteristics of silver-treated absorbent wound dressings. J Ind Text 42:231–243

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Holloway S, Bale S, Harding K, Robinson B, Ballard K (2002) Evaluating the effectiveness of a dressing for use in malodorous, exuding wounds. Ostomy Wound Manage 48(5):22–28

    Google Scholar 

  30. Haynes JS (2018) A clinical evaluation of a charcoal dressing to reduce malodour in wounds. Br J Nurs 27(6):S36-s42

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Browne N, Grocott P, Cowley S, Cameron J, Dealey C, Keogh A et al (2004) Woundcare Research for Appropriate Products (WRAP): validation of the TELER method involving users. Int J Nurs Stud 41(5):559–571

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Chiwenga S, Dowlen H, Mannion S (2009) Audit of the use of sugar dressings for the control of wound odour at Lilongwe Central Hospital. Malawi Trop Doct 39(1):20–22

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. White R (2013) Wound malodour and the role of ACTISORB Silver 220. Wounds UK 9(1):101–104

    Google Scholar 

  34. Sharp A, Brandon T, Thursby L (2014) Treating infection and malodour using a dressing with charcoal and silver: a case study evaluation. Wounds UK 10(2):110–114

    Google Scholar 

  35. Murphy N (2016) Reducing infection in chronic leg ulcers with an activated carbon cloth dressing. Br J Nurs 25(12):S38–S44

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Minsart M, Mignon A, Arslan A, Allan IU, Van Vlierberghe S, Dubruel P (2021) Activated carbon containing PEG-based hydrogels as novel candidate dressings for the treatment of malodorous wounds. Macromol Mater Eng 306(1):2000529

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. BS EN13726-6 (2003) Test methods for primary wound dressings: Odour control. British standards online. https://shop.bsigroup.com/products/test-methods-for-primary-wound-dressings-odour-control/standard

  38. Lee G, Anand SC, Rajendran S, Walker I (2007) Efficacy of commercial dressings in managing malodorous wounds. Br J Nurs 16(6):S14, s6, s8–20.

  39. Illsley MJ, Akhmetova A, Bowyer C, Nurgozhin T, Mikhalovsky SV, Farrer J et al (2017) Activated carbon-plasticised agarose composite films for the adsorption of thiol as a model of wound malodour. J Mater Sci Mater Med 28(10):154

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. Lipman RD, van Bavel D (2007) Odor absorbing hydrocolloid dressings for direct wound contact. Wounds 19(5):138–146

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The mechanical and fluid handling tests were performed by BG Healthcare (CH1 1SL, UK), using samples made and supplied by the University of Brighton.

Funding

This work has received funding from the Interreg 2 Seas programme 2014-2020 co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund under subsidy contract number DERMA 2SO1-02.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jacqueline Rachel Forss.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors have no relevant financial or non-financial interests to disclose. The authors have no competing interests to declare that are relevant to the content of this article. All authors certify that they have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest or non-financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript. The authors have no financial or proprietary interests in any material discussed in this article.

Ethical approval

Ethical approval for odour sampling with human volunteers was obtained via the University of Brighton Cross School Research Ethics Committee (CREC).

Additional information

Handling Editor: Annela M. Seddon.

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Forss, J.R., Tolhurst, B.A., Bowyer, C.J. et al. The properties of an activated carbon-containing agarose film for the amelioration of 2-amino acetophenone malodour as produced in chronic wounds infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Mater Sci 57, 16460–16470 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-022-07598-7

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-022-07598-7

Navigation