Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 53, Issue 18, pp 12741–12749 | Cite as

Influence of galia (Ga2O3) addition on the phase transformations and crystal growth behavior of zirconia (ZrO2)

  • Chen Barad
  • Giora Kimmel
  • Hagay Hayun
  • Dror Shamir
  • Michael Shandalov
  • Gal Shekel
  • Yaniv Gelbstein


The effect of a galia (Ga2O3) addition on the crystallographic phase evolution and the crystal growth behavior of zirconia (ZrO2) rich powder were investigated. Binary compositions of galia–zirconia powder (on the zirconia-rich side of the quasi-binary phase diagram) were obtained by the sol–gel method and calcined at different temperatures for 2 h. Rietveld refinement (FullProf program) was used to determine the crystallographic phase composition. Crystal size was approximated based on X-ray diffractions analysis combined with estimates of average crystal size obtained by processing high-resolution scanning electron microscopy images. The surface area of the powders obtained was measured via the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method. Zirconia–galia sol–gel powders were found to form tetragonal or mixed tetragonal–monoclinic solid solution phases depending on both composition and calcination temperature. It was shown that galia suppressed crystal growth process in zirconia, producing finer nano-powders with higher surface area compared to pure zirconia.



The authors thank the Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology in Ben Gurion University of the Negev for their technical help and services. The authors would like to thank Prof. N. Frage and Dr. M. Sokol for their technical cooperation with the freeze-drying system. The authors would like to thank Mr. Y. George and Dr. M. Harush for their technical help and consultation.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The work was supported by the Israel Ministry of Natural Infrastructures Energy and Water Resources Grant (3/15), No. 215-11-022.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chen Barad
    • 1
    • 2
  • Giora Kimmel
    • 3
  • Hagay Hayun
    • 4
  • Dror Shamir
    • 5
  • Michael Shandalov
    • 5
  • Gal Shekel
    • 5
  • Yaniv Gelbstein
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.The Unit of of Energy EngineeringBen-Gurion University of the NegevBeer-ShevaIsrael
  2. 2.Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC)Tel AvivIsrael
  3. 3.Institutes for Applied ResearchBen-Gurion University of the NegevBeer-ShevaIsrael
  4. 4.Department of Materials EngineeringBen-Gurion University of the NegevBeer-ShevaIsrael
  5. 5.NRCNBeer-ShevaIsrael

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