TiO2/C nanocomposites prepared by thermal annealing of titanium glycerolate as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries
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TiO2/C nanocomposites have been synthesized by developing a facile route based on the annealing of titanium glycerolate in inert atmosphere at 250–850 °C. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the annealing temperature determines the crystal structure of the TiO2 phase in the compounds, which can be amorphous, anatase, and rutile. In contrast, the nanosized rod-like morphology which to a certain extent is predefined by the titanium glycerolate precursor does not depend on the annealing temperature. The carbon content of the TiO2/C composites amounts to 16–29 wt% and shows up, e.g., in the characteristic Raman D and G bands. Anatase-structured TiO2/C, which is obtained at 600 °C, exhibits the best electrochemical performance among the studied materials. Without the addition of carbon black, it reaches an initial specific discharge capacity of 378 mA h g−1 at 100 mA g−1 and exhibits excellent rate capability with a capacity of 186 mA h g−1 at 1000 mA g−1.
This work was supported by the CleanTech-Initiative of the Baden-Württemberg-Stiftung (project CT3 Nanostorage). G.S.Z acknowledges support by the Excellence Initiative of the German Federal Government. A.O. acknowledges support by the IMPRS-QD. Q.Z. acknowledges support by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Projects 51611130056 and 51472189). The authors thank I. Glass for experimental support.
Data availability statement
The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.