Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 53, Issue 17, pp 12005–12015 | Cite as

Thermally reduced graphene oxide: synthesis, studies and characterization

  • Ana Elisa Ferreira Oliveira
  • Guilherme Bettio Braga
  • César Ricardo Teixeira Tarley
  • Arnaldo César Pereira
Chemical routes to materials


The main purpose of this study is to synthesize reduced graphene oxide (rGO) using graphite (GR) as a starting material. This paper explains didactic step-by-step of the synthesis, the role of each reagent, showing pictures of the entire process and including a well-explained characterization study. The rGO was prepared using modified Hummer’s method, followed by thermal reduction. The materials were characterized from the starting material (GR), through the intermediate material (GO) and finally the material of interest (rGO). Various techniques and procedures were used to characterize the materials such as X-ray diffraction, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical characterization and dispersion analysis. Morphological and structural characterization of the obtained materials suggests that the synthesis and reduction to obtain rGO were effective. The obtained materials were electrochemically evaluated using ferri/ferrocyanide redox probe. The association of chemical oxidation of GR with KMnO4 in the presence of H2SO4 with further thermal reduction makes possible to produce rGO in large scale and with quality as noticed by outstanding electrochemical behavior toward the redox couple [Fe(CN)6]3−/[Fe(CN)6]4− probe.



We thank FAPEMIG, CAPES, CNPQ and Rede Mineira de Química for the continuous support of our research that has led to this synthesis. We also thank Prof. Dr. Emerson S. Ribeiro for the partnership.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Ciências NaturaisUniversidade Federal de São João del-Rei, UFSJSão João del-ReiBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de QuímicaUniversidade Estadual de Londrina, UELLondrinaBrazil

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