Effect of Sn substitution on the energy storage properties of 0.45SrTiO3–0.2Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3–0.35BaTiO3 ceramics
Phase constitution, microstructure, dielectric performance, polarization, breakdown strength as well as energy storage behaviors for the (1 − x)(0.45SrTiO3–0.2Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3–0.35BaTiO3)–xSnO2 (STNBTBT–Snx) were systematically investigated. The dielectric measurements exhibit a relaxor behavior, and the dielectric loss is very low (< 0.6%) at room temperature for all compositions. Significant refinement of grain size and low dielectric loss were observed with the addition of Sn, accounting for effectively enhanced dielectric breakdown strength (17.0–25.2 kV/mm when x = 0~0.09), beneficial for the energy storage applications. The sample with x = 0.07 exhibits the highest energy storage density of 2.25 J/cm3 and an energy storage efficiency of 79.51% at 24 kV/mm. Particularly, its energy storage properties were found to depend weakly on frequency (1–100 Hz). Our results suggest that this system can be a potential lead-free candidate for high electric energy storage and discharge efficiency.
This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51372144, 51641207), and the Key Program of Innovative Research Team of Shaanxi Province (2014KCT-06) and National Undergraduate Training Programs for Innovation and Entrepreneurship (201710708009).
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