Electric field–temperature phase diagram of sodium bismuth titanate-based relaxor ferroelectrics
- 494 Downloads
The electric field–temperature phase diagrams of three bismuth sodium titanate-based relaxor ferroelectrics are reported, namely 0.94(Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3)–0.06(BaTiO3), 0.80(Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3)–0.20(K1/2Bi1/2TiO3) and 0.75(Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3)–0.25(SrTiO3). Relaxor behavior is demonstrated by temperature-dependent dielectric permittivity measurements in the unpoled and poled states, as well as by the field-induced phase transition into a ferroelectric phase from the relaxor phase. From temperature-dependent thermometry measurements, we identified the threshold electric field to induce the ferroelectric phase and obtained the released latent heat of the phase transition. We determined the nonergodic and ergodic relaxor phase temperature range based on the absence or presence of reversibility of the relaxor to ferroelectric transition. For all three compositions, the electric field–temperature phase diagram was constructed and a critical point was identified. The constructed electric field–temperature phase diagrams are useful to find optimum operational ranges of ferroelectrics and relaxors for electromechanical and electrocaloric applications.
This work was financed by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under the SPP 1599, Project No. 1221/2-1. Malte Vögler acknowledges support under the DFG Grant No. RO954/25.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
There are no conflicts to declare.
- 3.Rödel J, Webber KG, Dittmer R, Jo W, Kimura M, Damjanovic D (2015) Transferring lead-free piezoelectric ceramics into application. J Eur Ceram Soc 35(6):1659–1681. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2014.12.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Kutnjak Z, Rožič B, Pirc R (2015) Electrocaloric effect: theory, measurements, and applications. Wiley encyclopedia of electrical and electronics engineering. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar