Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 53, Issue 12, pp 9316–9324 | Cite as

A study on generation of embossed carbon nanopattern by induced microdomain alignments in PAN-based block copolymer under electric field

  • Seokwon Joo
  • Bomyung Kim
  • Jaieun An
  • Minji Park
  • Soonmin Seo
  • Jeong Yong Park
  • Joonwon Bae


In this study, generation of a unique carbon nanostructure having embossed morphology was examined focusing on formation pathway under an external electric field. An ultrathin embossed carbon layer was prepared by exposing a polyacrylonitrile-based block copolymer (BCP) thin film to an electric field. A detailed investigation on formation process and window for experimental parameters such as field intensity and exposure time was performed systematically. An electric field was applied to prepared BCP thin films to induce regulated microdomain alignments, and subsequent thermal treatment produced an unprecedented carbon nanostructure having a unique morphology. Atomic force microscopy analysis showed that a critical field strength (ca. 10 V/μm) and exposure time (24 h) were required to obtain the carbon nanostructure. This article can provide important information for future studies on creation of nanopatterns with electric fields.



This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2016R1D1A1B03934440).

Supplementary material

10853_2018_2132_MOESM1_ESM.docx (719 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 718 kb)


  1. 1.
    Vrij A (1966) Possible mechanism for the spontaneous rupture of thin, free liquid films. Discuss Faraday Soc 42:23–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sharma A, Ruckenstein E (1986) Finite-amplitude instability of thin free and wetting films: prediction of lifetimes. Langmuir 2:480–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Reiter G (1992) Dewetting of thin polymer films. Phys Rev Lett 68:75–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yerushalmi-Rosen R, Klein J, Fetters LJ (1994) Suppression of rupture in thin, nonwetting liquid films. Science 263:793–795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Böltau M, Walheim S, Mlynek J, Krausch G, Steiner U (1998) Surface-induced structure formation of polymer blends on patterned substrates. Nature 391:877–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Thiele U, Velarde G, Neuffer K (2001) Dewetting: film rupture by nucleation in the spinodal regime. Phys Rev Lett 87:016104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bae J, Glogowski E, Gupta S, Chen W, Emrick T, Russell TP (2008) Effect of nanoparticles on the electrohydrodynamic instabilities of polymer/nanoparticle thin films. Macromolecules 41:2722–2726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Amarandei G, Beltrame P, Clancy I, O’Dwyer C, Arshak A, Steiner U, Corcorana D, Thiele U (2012) Pattern formation induced by an electric field in a polymer–air–polymer thin film system. Soft Matter 8:6333–6349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kathrein CC, Bai W, Nunns A, Gwyther J, Manners I, Böker A, Tsarkova L, Ross CA (2016) Electric field manipulated nanopatterns in thin films of metalorganic 3-miktoarm star terpolymers. Soft Matter 12:4866–4874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bae J, Cha SH (2014) Effect of nanoparticle surface functionality on microdomain orientation in block copolymer thin films under electric field. Polymer 55:2014–2020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bae J, Park SJ, Kwon OS, Jang J (2014) The effect of nanoparticle on microdomain alignment in block copolymer thin films under an electric field. J Mater Sci 49:4323–4331. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tassinari F, Mathew SP, Fontanesi C, Schenetti L, Naaman R (2014) Electric-field-driven alignment of chiral conductive polymer thin films. Langmuir 30:4838–4843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tong Q, Sibener SJ (2014) Electric-field-induced control and switching of block copolymer domain orientations in nanoconfined channel architectures. J Phys Chem C 118:13752–13756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Olszowka V, Hund M, Kuntermann V, Scherdel S, Tsarkova L, Böker A (2009) electric field alignment of a block copolymer nanopattern: direct observation of the microscopic mechanism. ACS Nano 3:1091–1096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Matsen MW (2006) Electric field alignment in thin films of cylinder-forming diblock copolymer. Macromolecules 39:5512–5520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Giacomelli FC, Riegel IC, Petzhold CL, da Silveira NP (2008) Block copolymer solutions under external electric field: dynamic behavior monitored by light scattering. Macromolecules 41:2677–2682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wang JY, Leiston-Belanger JM, Sievert JD, Russell TP (2006) Grain rotation in ion-complexed symmetric diblock copolymer thin films under an electric field. Macromolecules 39:8487–8491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pestera CW, Liedel C, Ruppel M, Böker A (2016) Block copolymers in electric fields. Prog Polym Sci 64:182–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Xiang H, Lin Y, Russell TP (2004) Electrically induced patterning in block copolymer films. Macromolecules 37:5358–5363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schoberth HG, Pester CW, Ruppel M, Urban VS, Böker A (2013) Orientation-dependent order–disorder transition of block copolymer lamellae in electric fields. ACS Macro Lett 2:469–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pester CW, Schmidt K, Ruppel M, Schoberth HG, Böker A (2015) Electric-field-induced order–order transition from hexagonally perforated lamellae to lamellae. Macromolecules 48:6206–6213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Leiston-Belanger JM, Penelle J, Russell TP (2006) Synthesis and microphase separation of poly(styrene-b-acrylonitrile) prepared by sequential anionic and ATRP techniques. Macromolecules 39:1766–1770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bae J, Park SJ, Kwon OS, Jang J (2013) A unique embossed carbon layer from induced domain alignment in a block copolymer thin film under an electric field. Chem Commun 49:5456–5458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Palanisamy A, Salim NV, Fox BL, Jyotishkumar P, Pradeep T, Hameed N (2016) A facile method to fabricate carbon nanostructures via the self-assembly of polyacrylonitrile/poly(methyl methacrylate-b-polyacrylonitrile) AB/B′ type block copolymer/homopolymer blends. RSC Adv 6:55792–55799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kim C, Park SH, Cho JI, Lee DY, Park TJ, Lee WJ, Yang KS (2004) Raman spectroscopic evaluation of polyacrylonitrile-based carbon nanofibers prepared by electrospinning. J Raman Spectrosc 35:928–933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bates FS, Frederickson GH (1999) Block copolymers—designer soft materials. Phys Today 52(2):32–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mark JE (2007) Physical properties of polymers handbook. Springer, CincinnatiCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of BioNano TechnologyGachon UniversitySeongnam CityRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Applied ChemistryDongduk Women’s UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations