Antibiofouling thin-film composite membranes (TFC) by in situ formation of Cu-(m-phenylenediamine) oligomer complex
- 23 Downloads
In situ formation of a Cu-(m-phenylenediamine) (Cu-mPD) oligomer complex from copper chloride during the interfacial polymerization process was successfully employed to produce modified thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes (TFC-RO) with antibiofouling properties. Membranes were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy, and contact angle measurements. Antibiofouling properties were studied using a colony-forming unit test with Escherichia coli. Moreover, an antiadhesion test was developed using fluorescence microscopy. Membrane performance using a cross-flow cell was evaluated, and copper concentration in permeate water was measured. FTIR, XPS and XRD results confirmed the formation of a Cu-mPD oligomer complex and its incorporation into the polyamide layer. A mechanism for formation of the oligomer within the membrane was proposed based on the interaction between the oxygen of the carbonyl group of the polyamide layer and copper ion of the Cu-mPD oligomer complex. The modified membrane showed a slight decrease in hydrophilicity and higher surface roughness. However, excellent antibacterial and antiadhesion effects were observed, attributed to copper toxicity as a result of Cu2+ ions release from the membrane surface. Release of copper ions in the permeate water was determined, and the maximum value observed was considered negligible according to the World Health Organization. The desalination performance of modified membrane showed an important salt rejection with stable water flux. In conclusion, a novel chemical method for the incorporation of Cu-mPD oligomer complex into the polyamide layer of TFC-RO membranes to improve their antibiofouling properties and desalination performance was achieved.
The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support provided by National Fund for Scientific and Technological Development (FONDECYT) of the Government of Chile (Project No. 11130251). The authors thank Solvay Advanced Polymers for donating the polysulfone Udel P-1700. The authors also thank to the Water Quality Laboratory of the Department of Civil Engineering of Universidad de Chile for giving the infrastructure and the technician Viviana Lorca for TOC measures made.
This study was funded by National Fund for Scientific and Technological Development (FONDECYT) of the Government of Chile (Grant No. 11130251).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have not conflict of interest.
- 5.Ghosh AK, Bindal RC, Prabhakar S, Tewari PK (2011) Composite polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membranes—recent developments and future directions technology development. BARC Newsl 321:43–51Google Scholar
- 27.Shaffiey SF, Bozorgnia A, Ahmad M (2014) Synthesis and evaluation of bactericidal properties of CuO nanoparticles against Aeromonas hydrophila. Nanomed J 1:98–204Google Scholar
- 38.García A, Rodríguez B, Oztürk D, Rosales M, Diaz DI, Mautner A (2017) Incorporation of CuO nanoparticles into thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes (TFC-RO) for antibiofouling properties. Polym Bull 46:1–17Google Scholar
- 48.Robert FXW, Silverstein M, Kiemle D (2005) Spectrometric identification of organic compounds, 7th edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 52.Wagner CD, Riggs WM, Davis LE, Moulder JF, Muilenberg GE (1979) Handbook of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, vol 190. Perkin-Elmer Corporation, WalthamGoogle Scholar
- 54.Porter MC (1991) Handbook of industrial membrane technology. Noyes Publications, Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
- 56.Jia Xu, Zhang Lili, Gao Xueli, Bie Haiyan, Yunpeng Fu, Gao Congjie (2015) Constructing antimicrobial membrane surfaces with polycation-copper (II) complex assembly for efficient seawater softening treatment. J Membr Sci 494:28–36Google Scholar