Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 53, Issue 9, pp 6951–6967 | Cite as

Effect of Al on martensite tempering: comparison with Si

Metals
  • 154 Downloads

Abstract

Both Si and Al are known to have negligible solubility in cementite and therefore retard cementite precipitation. The effect of Si on carbides formation during martensite tempering has been extensively studied, whereas that of Al has attracted little attention. The aim of the present study is to shed light on the effect of Al on martensite tempering. Various advanced characterization techniques like FEG-SEM, TEM, in situ synchrotron XRD and APT have been employed to investigate the microstructural evolution during martensite tempering of 0.25C–2.1Mn steels with or without Al and Si additions. It is revealed that Al addition promotes ε-carbide formation, whereas Si addition has no significant effect. Al addition has weaker influence than Si addition to retard θ-carbides formation. At lower tempering temperature or short tempering time, Si addition retards more efficiently θ-carbide growth, whereas at higher temperature tempering or longer tempering time, Al addition becomes more efficient to retard θ-carbide growth. As a consequence, Si addition resists better martensite softening during tempering at lower temperature or for shorter time, whereas Al addition resists more strongly martensite softening during tempering at higher temperature or for longer time. Based on the present experimental results, mechanisms are proposed to explain the effect of Al on θ-carbide formation and growth as compared with Si.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would express their gratitude to Mr. Patrick Barges in ArcelorMittal Maizières for his TEM investigation work and Dr. Cédric Bellot in ACRDM (laboratoire d’Analyses, Conseils et R&D dans les Matériaux, France) for his in situ synchrotron XRD analysis work.

References

  1. 1.
    Grange RA, Hribal CR, Porter LF (1977) Hardness of tempered martensite in carbon and low-alloy steels. Metall Trans A 8:1775–1785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lee JB, Kang N, Park JT, Ahn S-T, Park Y-D, Choi I-D, Kim K-R, Cho K-M (2011) Kinetics of carbide formation for quenching and tempering steels during high-frequency induction heat treatment. Mater Chem Phys 129:365–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Miyamoto G, Oh JC, Hono K, Furuhara T, Maki T (2007) Effect of partitioning of Mn and Si on the growth kinetics of cementite in tempered Fe–0.6 mass%C martensite. Acta Mater 55:5027–5038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhu C, Xiong XY, Cerezo A, Hardwicke R, Krauss G, Smith GDW (2007) Three-dimensional atom probe characterization of alloy element partitioning in cementite during tempering of alloy steel. Ultramicroscopy 107:808–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhu C, Cerezo A, Smith GDW (2009) Carbide characterization in low-temperature tempered steels. Ultramicroscopy 109:545–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Williamson DL, Schupmann RG, Materkowski JP, Krauss G (1979) Determination of small amounts of austenite and carbide in hardened medium carbon steels by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Metall Trans A 10:379–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lee H-C, Krauss G (1992) Intralath carbide transition in martensitic medium carbon steels tempered between 200 and 300°C. In: Krauss G, Repas PE (eds) Fundamentals of aging and tempering in bainitic and martensitic steel products. Iron and Steel Society, Warrendale, pp 39–43Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Williamson DL, Nakazawa K, Krauss G (1979) A study of the early stages of tempering in an Fe-1.2%C alloy. Metall Trans A 10:1351–1363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hirotsu Y, Nagakura S (1974) Electron microscopy and diffraction study of the carbide precipitated at the first stage of tempering of martensitic medium carbon steel. Trans Jpn Inst Metals 15:129–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shi ZM, Gong W, Tomota Y, Harjo S, Li J, Chi B, Pu J (2015) Study of tempering behavior of lath martensite using in situ neutron diffraction. Mater Charact 107:29–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ghosh G, Olson GB (2002) Precipitation of paraequilibrium cementite: experiments, and thermodynamic and kinetic modeling. Acta Mater 50:2099–2119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kim B, Celada C, San Martin D, Sourmail T, Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo PEJ (2013) The effect of silicon on the nanoprecipitation of cementite. Acta Mater 61:6983–6992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Clarke AJ, Miller MK, Field RD, Coughlin DR, Gibbs PJ, Clarke KD, Alexander DJ, Powers KA, Papin PA, Krauss G (2014) Atomic and nanoscale chemical and structural changes in quenched and tempered 4340 steel. Acta Mater 77:17–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Xia Y, Luo X, Zhong X, Zhou H, Wang C, Shi J (2016) In-situ TEM observation of cementite coarsening behavior of 5Mn steel during tempering. J Iron Steel Res Int 23:442–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Barnard SJ, Smith GDW, Garratt-Reed AJ, Sande JV (1981) Atom probe studies: the role of silicon in tempering of steel. Low-temperature chromium diffusivity in bainite. In: Proceedings of the solid to solid phase transformations, Pittsburgh, pp 881–885Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chang L, Smith GDW (1984) The silicon effect in the tempering of martensite in steels. Le Journal de Physique Colloques 45:397–401Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Song W, von Appen J, Choi P, Dronskowski R, Raabe D, Bleck W (2013) Atomic-scale investigation of ε; and θ; precipitates in bainite in 100Cr6 bearing steel by atom probe tomography and ab initio calculations. Acta Mater 61:7582–7590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jang JH, Kim IG, Bhadeshia HKDH (2010) ε-Carbide in alloy steels: first-principles assessment. Scr Mater 63:121–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Baker RG, Nutting J (1959) The tempering of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel after quenching and normalizing. J Iron Steel Inst 192:257–268Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Babu SS, Hono K, Sakurai T (1993) APFIM studies on martensite tempering of Fe–C–Si–Mn low alloy steel. Appl Surf Sci 67:321–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Babu SS, Hono K, Sakurai T (1994) Atom probe field ion microscopy study of the partitioning of substitutional elements during tempering of a low-alloy steel martensite. Metal Trans A 25:499–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Thomson RC, Miller MK (1995) The partitioning of substitutional solute elements during the tempering of martensite in Cr and Mo containing steels. Appl Surf Sci 87–88:185–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Thomson RC, Miller MK (1996) An atom probe study of cementite precipitation in autotempered martensite in an Fe–Mn–C alloy. Appl Surf Sci 94–95:313–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Thomson RC, Miller MK (1998) Carbide precipitation in martensite during the early stages of tempering Cr- and Mo-contained low alloy steels. Acta Mater 46:2203–2213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Airey GP, Hughes TA, Mehl R (1968) The growth of cementite particles in ferrite. AIME Trans 242:1853–1863Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mukherjee T, Stumpf WE, Sellars CM, Tegart WJM (1969) Kinetics of coarsening of carbides in chromium steels at 700°C. J Iron Steel Inst 207:621–631Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sakuma T, Watanabe N, Nishizawa T (1980) The effect of alloying element on the coarsening behavior of cementite particles in ferrite. Trans JIM 21:159–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lesilie WC, Rauch GC (1978) Precipitation of carbides in low carbon Fe–Al–C alloys. Metall Trans A 9:343–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Xue H, Baker TN (1993) Influence of aluminium on carbide precipitation in low carbon microalloyed steels. Mater Sci Technol 9:424–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Park HS, Seol J-B, Lim N-S, Kim S-I, Park C-G (2015) Study of the decomposition behavior of retained austenite and the partitioning of alloying elements during tempering in CMnSiAl TRIP steels. Mater Des 82:173–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ayache J, Beaunier L, Boumendil J, Ehret G, Laub D (2010) Replica techniques. Sample preparation handbook for transmission electron microscopy. Springer, New York, pp 229–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Miller MK, Russell KF (2007) Atom probe specimen preparation with a dual beam SEM/FIB miller. Ultramicroscopy 107:761–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Girault E, Mertens A, Jacques P, Houbaert Y, Verlinden B, Humbeeck JV (2001) Comparison of the effects of silicon and aluminum on the tensile behaviour of multiphase trip-assisted steels. Scr Mater 44:885–892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Speich GR, Leslie WC (1972) Tempering of steel. Metall Mater Trans B 3:1043–1054CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Shi ZM, Gong W, Tomota Y, Harjo S, Li J, Chi B, Pu J (2015) Study of tempering behavior of lath martensite using in situ neutron diffraction. Mater Character 107:29–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Krauss G (1999) Martensite in steel: strength and structure. Mater Sci Eng, A 273–275:40–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Iung T, Drillet J, Couturier A, Olier C (2002) Detailed study of the transformation mechanisms in ferrous TRIP aided steels. Steel Res 73:218–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gaye H, Lehmann J (2004) Modelling and prediction of reactions involving metals, slags and fluxes. In: VII international conference on Molten Slags Fluxes and Salts, The South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, pp 619–624Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Owen WS (1954) The effect of silicon on the kinetics of tempering. Trans ASM 46:812–829Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Barrow ATW, Rivera-Díaz-del-Castillo PEJ (2011) Nanoprecipitation in bearing steels. Acta Mater 59:7155–7167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kim B, Boucard E, Sourmail T, San Martin D, Gey N, Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo PEJ (2014) The influence of silicon in tempered martensite: understanding the microstructure–properties relationship in 0.5–0.6 wt% C steels. Acta Mater 68:169–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Xia Y, Luo X, Zhong X, Zhou H, Wang C, Shi J (2016) In-situ TEM observation of cementite coarsening behavior of 5Mn steel during tempering. J Iron Steel Res Int 23:442–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.R&D ArcelorMittal MaizièresMaizières-lès-Metz CedexFrance
  2. 2.ArcelorMittal Global R&D GentZelzateBelgium
  3. 3.School of Materials Science and EngineeringTsinghua UniversityHaidian District, BeijingChina

Personalised recommendations