Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 53, Issue 12, pp 9160–9169 | Cite as

Cagelike porous sulfonated polystyrene@polyaniline composite microspheres for high-performance supercapacitor

Energy materials
  • 42 Downloads

Abstract

The development of novel high-performance electrode materials has become increasingly urgent due to the broad demands on the large-capacity energy storage devices nowadays. In this work, cagelike porous sulfonated polystyrene (cSPS) microspheres are first synthesized as the skeleton structure templates, on which polyaniline (PANI) nanoparticles with a size of about 30 nm are loaded through the in situ polymerization of aniline. The novel cSPS-supported PANI composite microspheres (cSPS@PANI) possess hierarchical meso-/macroporous structure, and their BET specific surface area and pore volume reach the maximum at a moderate PANI mass fraction. The electrochemical performance of cSPS@PANI composite microspheres was evaluated through a three-electrode system with 1 M H2SO4 as the electrolyte. The specific capacitance of the cSPS@PANI composite microspheres can reach as high as 374 F g−1 at a current density of 1 A g−1, and only 11.8% is lost after 500 charge/discharge cycles. Thus, the cSPS@PANI composite microspheres can be potentially used as one of the novel outstanding electrode materials in the fabrication of high-performance energy storage devices.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51573174, 51473152, and 51773189) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (WK2060200012, WK3450000001).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10853_2017_1892_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.2 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1208 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Oldham KB, Myland JC (1994) Fundamentals of electrochemical science. Academic Press Inc, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Saponara S (2016) An actuator control unit for safety–critical mechatronic applications with embedded energy storage backup. Energies 9(3):213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhang YZ, Zhao JH, Xia J (2015) Room temperature synthesis of cobalt–manganese–nickel oxalates micropolyhedrons for high-performance flexible electrochemical energy storage device. Sci Rep 5:8536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lang JW, Yan XB, Yuan XY, Yang J, Xue QJ (2011) Study on the electrochemical properties of cubic ordered mesoporous carbon for supercapacitors. J Power Sources 196(23):10472–10478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhang XL, Ma L, Gan MY (2017) Fabrication of 3D lawn-shaped N-doped porous carbon matrix/polyaniline nanocomposite as the electrode material for supercapacitors. J Power Source 340:22–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhao YF, Ran W, He J, Tang YF, Zhang L, Gao DW, Gao FM (2015) High performance asymmetric supercapacitors based on multilayer MnO2/graphene oxide nanoflakes and hierarchical porous carbon with enhanced cycling stability. Small 11(11):1310–1319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    O’Neill L, Johnston C, Grant PS (2015) Enhancing the supercapacitor behaviour of novel Fe3O4/FeOOH nanowire hybrid electrodes in aqueous electrolytes. J Power Source 274:907–915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cui GF, Wang X, Cui MQ, Darmawan P, Wang JX, Eh ALS, Lee PS (2015) Electrochromo-supercapacitor based on direct growth of NiO nanoparticles. Nano Energy 12:258–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Moon GD, Joo JB, Dahi M, Jung H, Yin YD (2014) Nitridation and layered assembly of hollow TiO2 shells for electrochemical energy storage. Adv Funct Mater 24(6):848–856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tang HJ, Wang JY, Wang D (2015) Growth of polypyrrole ultrathin films on MoS2 monolayers as high-performance supercapacitor electrodes. Adv Mater 27(6):1117–1123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Alabadi A, Razzaque S, Dong ZH, Wang XW, Tan B (2015) Graphene oxide-polythiophene derivative hybrid nanosheet for enhancing performance of supercapacitor. J Power Source 306:241–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Liu LY, Zhan X, Li HX, Liu B, Lang JW, Kong LB, Yan XB (2017) Synthesis of Co-Ni oxide microflowers as a superior anode for hybrid supercapacitors with ultralong cycle life. Chin Chem Lett 28(2):206–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Li J, Zhang D, Guo JB (2014) Electrochemical behavior and specific capacitance of polyaniline/silver nanoparticle/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites. Chin J Chem Phys 27(6):718–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rudge A, Raistrick I, Gottesfeld S, Ferraris JP (1994) A study of the electrochemical properties of conducting polymers for application in electrochemical capacitors. Electrochim Acta 39(2):273–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ryu KS, Kim KM, Park NG, Park YJ, Chang SH (2002) Symmetric redox supercapacitor with conducting polyaniline electrodes. J Power Sources 103(2):305–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Xu JJ, Wang K, Zu SZ, Han BH, Wei ZX (2010) Hierarchical nanocomposites of polyaniline nanowire arrays on graphene oxide sheets with synergistic effect for energy storage. ACS Nano 9(4):5019–5026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhang K, Zhang LL, Zhao XS, Wu JS (2010) Graphene/polyaniline nanofiber composites as supercapacitor electrodes. Chem Mater 22(4):1392–1401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li J, Xie HQ, Li Y, Liu J, Li ZX (2011) Electrochemical properties of graphene nanosheets/polyaniline nanofibers composites as electrode for supercapacitors. J Power Sources 196(24):10775–10781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Snook GA, Kao P, Best AS (2011) Conducting-polymer-based supercapacitor devices and electrodes. J Power Sources 196(1):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Luo J, Ma Q, Gu HH, Zheng Y, Liu XY (2015) Three-dimensional graphene–polyaniline hybrid hollow spheres by layer-by-layer assembly for application in supercapacitor. Electrochim Acta 173:84–192Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wu Q, Xu YX, Yao ZY, Liu AR, Shi GQ (2010) Supercapacitors based on flexible graphene/polyaniline nanofiber composite films. ACS Nano 4(4):1963–1970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mu JJ, Ma GF, Peng H, Li JJ, Sun KJ, Lei ZQ (2013) In situ intercalative polymerization of pyrrole in graphene analogue of MoS2 as advanced electrode material in supercapacitor. J Power Sources 229:72–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kwon H, Hong DJ, Ryu L, Yim S (2017) Supercapacitive properties of 3D-arrayed polyaniline hollow nanospheres encaging RuO2 nanoparticles. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9(8):7412–7423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lei ZB, Sun XX, Wang HJ (2013) Platelet CMK-5 as an excellent mesoporous carbon to enhance the pseudocapacitance of polyaniline. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 5(15):7501–7508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yu DH, Goh KL, Wang H, Wei L, Jiang WC, Zhang Q, Dai LM, Chen Y (2014) Scalable synthesis of hierarchically structured carbon nanotube-graphene fibres for capacitive energy storage. Nat Nanotechnol 9:555–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ning XT, Zhong WB, Wang L (2016) Ultrahigh specific surface area porous carbon nanospheres and its composite with polyaniline: preparation and application for supercapacitors. RSC Adv 6:25519–25524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    He XD, Ge XW, Liu HR, Wang MZ, Zhang ZC (2005) Synthesis of cagelike polymer microspheres with hollow core/porous shell structures by self-assembly of latex particles at the emulsion droplet interface. Chem Mater 17(24):5891–5892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ge XP, Ge XW, Wang MZ, Liu HR, Fang B, Li Z, Yang CZ, Li G (2012) A novel approach for preparation of “cage-like” multihollow polymer microspheres through sulfonated polystyrene particles. Colloid Polym Sci 290(17):1749–1757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Weng HQ, Huang XF, Wang MZ, Ji X, Ge XW (2013) Formation of cagelike sulfonated polystyrene microspheres via swelling-osmosis process and loading of CdS nanoparticles. Langmuir 29(49):15367–15374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Yuan Q, Yang LB, Wang MZ, Wang H, Ge XP, Ge XW (2009) The mechanism of the formation of multihollow polymer spheres through sulfonated polystyrene particles. Langmuir 25(5):2729–2735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wang HL, Hao QL, Yang XJ, Lu LD, Wang X (2009) Graphene oxide doped polyaniline for supercapacitors. Electrochem Commun 11(6):1158–1161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Brunauer S, Deming LS, Deming WE, Teller E (1940) On a theory of the van der Waals adsorption of gases. J Am Chem Soc 62:1723–1732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sing KSW, Everett DH, Haul RAW, Moscou L, Pierotti RA, Rouquérol J, Siemieniewska T (1985) Reporting physisorption data for gas/solid systems with special reference to the determination of surface area and porosity (recommendations 1984). Pure Appl Chem 57:603–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Li T, Qin ZY, Liang BL, Zhu MF (2015) Morphology-dependent capacitive properties of three nanostructured polyanilines through interfacial polymerization in various acidic media. Electrochim Acta 177:343–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tran-Van F, Henri T, Chevrot C (2002) Synthesis and electrochemical properties of mixed ionic and electronic modified polycarbazole. Electrochim Acta 47(18):2927–2936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mai LQ, Minhas-Khan A, Tian XC, Hercule KM, Zhao YL, Lin X, Xu X (2013) Synergistic interaction between redox-active electrolyte and binder-free functionalized carbon for ultrahigh supercapacitor performance. Nat Commun 4:2923–2929CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and EngineeringUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaHefeiPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations