Skip to main content

Highly stretchable fiber-shaped e-textiles for strain/pressure sensing, full-range human motions detection, health monitoring, and 2D force mapping

Abstract

Textile-based electronics (e-textiles) have attracted huge attention in wearable sensors recently. Even though highly sensitive textile-based pressure sensors and highly stretchable textile-based strain sensors are widely researched and reported in recent years, it is still full of challenges to develop high stretchable textile-based sensors simultaneously and satisfy strain and pressure sensing, which is necessary for full-range detection of human motions. On the other hand, compared to traditional planar e-textiles, fiber-shaped e-textiles have plenty of advantages due to their fibrous architecture with lightweight, portable, skin compliant, and easily weave properties. In this work, a fiber-shaped textile, knitted with hierarchical polyurethane (PU) fibers, is used to fabricate a multifunctional e-textile by coating of silver nanowires (AgNWs) and styrene–butadiene–styrene. Due to the AgNWs conductive networks, the inherent stretchability of PU fibers, and the hierarchical structure, the as-prepared e-textile exhibits high conductivity, high stretchability, high sensitivity, and multi-detection of strain and pressure. What is more, the fabricated multifunctional e-textiles are also successfully weaved into electronic fabric for 2D force mapping. The simple, scalable strategy endows the multifunctional e-textiles great potentials in full-range detection and health care areas.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5

References

  1. 1

    Jin H, Matsuhisa N, Lee S et al (2017) Enhancing the performance of stretchable conductors for e-textiles by controlled ink permeation. Adv Mater 29:1605848

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Zhang M, Wang C, Wang H et al (2017) Carbonized cotton fabric for high-performance wearable strain sensors. Adv Funct Mater 27:1604795

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Cai G, Yang M, Xu Z et al (2017) Flexible and wearable strain sensing fabrics. Chem Eng J 325:396–403

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Lee T, Lee W, Kim S-W et al (2016) Flexible textile strain wireless sensor functionalized with hybrid carbon nanomaterials supported ZnO nanowires with controlled aspect ratio. Adv Funct Mater 26:6206–6214

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Zhao Z, Yan C, Liu Z et al (2016) Machine-washable textile triboelectric nanogenerators for effective human respiratory monitoring through loom weaving of metallic yarns. Adv Mater 28:10267–10274

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Zhou G, Byun J-H, Oh Y et al (2017) Highly sensitive wearable textile-based humidity sensor made of high-strength, single-walled carbon nanotube/poly(vinyl alcohol) filaments. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9:4788–4797

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Wang C, Zhang M, Xia K et al (2017) Intrinsically stretchable and conductive textile by a scalable process for elastic wearable electronics. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9:13331–13338

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Fu Y, He H, Liu Y et al (2017) Self-powered, stretchable, fiber-based electronic-skin for actively detecting human motion and environmental atmosphere based on a triboelectrification/gas-sensing coupling effect. J Mater Chem C 5:1231–1239

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Lou Z, Chen S, Wang L et al (2016) An ultra-sensitive and rapid response speed graphene pressure sensors for electronic skin and health monitoring. Nano Energy 23:7–14

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Liu S, Hu M, Yang J (2016) A facile way of fabricating a flexible and conductive cotton fabric. J Mater Chem C 4:1320–1325

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Wei Y, Chen S, Dong X et al (2017) Flexible piezoresistive sensors based on “dynamic bridging effect” of silver nanowires toward graphene. Carbon 113:395–403

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Wei Y, Chen S, Lin Y et al (2016) Silver nanowires coated on cotton for flexible pressure sensors. J Mater Chem C 4:935–943

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Eom J, Jaisutti R, Lee H et al (2017) Highly sensitive textile strain sensors and wireless user-interface devices using all-polymeric conducting fibers. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9:10190–10197

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Seyedin S, Razal JM, Innis PC et al (2015) Knitted strain sensor textiles of highly conductive all-polymeric fibers. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7:21150–21158

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    Wang C, Li X, Gao E et al (2016) Carbonized silk fabric for ultrastretchable, highly sensitive, and wearable strain sensors. Adv Mater 28:6640–6648

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    Park J, Lee Y, Hong J et al (2014) Tactile-Direction-sensitive and stretchable electronic skins based on human-skin-inspired interlocked microstructures. ACS Nano 8:12020–12029

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    Frutiger A, Muth JT, Vogt DM et al (2015) Capacitive soft strain sensors via multicore-shell fiber printing. Adv Mater 27:2440–2446

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    Lee J, Kwon H, Seo J et al (2015) Conductive fiber-based ultrasensitive textile pressure sensor for wearable electronics. Adv Mater 27:2433–2439

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    Cooper CB, Arutselvan K, Liu Y et al (2017) Stretchable capacitive sensors of torsion, strain, and touch using double helix liquid metal fibers. Adv Funct Mater 27:1605630

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    Wang H, Liu Z, Ding J et al (2016) Downsized sheath-core conducting fibers for weavable superelastic wires, biosensors, supercapacitors, and strain sensors. Adv Mater 28:4998–5007

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    Lee S, Shin S, Lee S et al (2015) Ag nanowire reinforced highly stretchable conductive fibers for wearable electronics. Adv Funct Mater 25:3114–3121

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    Wei Y, Chen S, Yuan X et al (2016) Multiscale wrinkled microstructures for piezoresistive fibers. Adv Funct Mater 26:5078–5085

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23

    He X, Zi Y, Guo H et al (2017) A highly stretchable fiber-based triboelectric nanogenerator for self-powered wearable electronics. Adv Funct Mater 27:1604378

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24

    Zhao Z, Yan C, Liu Z et al (2016) Machine-washable textile triboelectric nanogenerators for effective human respiratory monitoring through loom weaving of metallic yarns. Adv Mater 28:10267–10274

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25

    Cheng Y, Wang R, Sun J, Gao L (2015) A stretchable and highly sensitive graphene-based fiber for sensing tensile strain, bending, and torsion. Adv Mater 27:7365–7371

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26

    Liu ZF, Fang S, Moura FA et al (2015) Hierarchically buckled sheath-core fibers for superelastic electronics, sensors, and muscles. Science 349:400–404

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27

    Foroughi J, Spinks GM, Aziz S et al (2016) Knitted carbon-nanotube-sheath/spandex-core elastomeric yarns for artificial muscles and strain sensing. ACS Nano 10:9129–9135

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28

    Cheng Y, Wang R, Sun J, Gao L (2015) Highly conductive and ultrastretchable electric circuits from covered yarns and silver nanowires. ACS Nano 9:3887–3895

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29

    Park J, Lee Y, Hong J et al (2014) Giant tunneling piezoresistance of composite elastomers with interlocked microdome arrays for ultrasensitive and multimodal electronic skins. ACS Nano 8:4689–4697

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30

    Zhong W, Liu Q, Wu Y et al (2016) A nanofiber based artificial electronic skin with high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability. Nanoscale 8:12105–12112

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31

    Wang X, Gu Y, Xiong Z et al (2014) Silk-molded flexible, ultrasensitive, and highly stable electronic skin for monitoring human physiological signals. Adv Mater 26:1336–1342

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32

    Jian M, Xia K, Wang Q et al (2017) Flexible and highly sensitive pressure sensors based on bionic hierarchical structures. Adv Funct Mater 27:1606066

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33

    Wang Z, Wang S, Zeng J et al (2016) High sensitivity, wearable, piezoresistive pressure sensors based on irregular microhump structures and its applications in body motion sensing. Small 12:3827–3836

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34

    Tai Y, Lubineau G (2016) Double-twisted conductive smart threads comprising a homogeneously and a gradient-coated thread for multidimensional flexible pressure-sensing devices. Adv Funct Mater 26:4078–4084

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35

    Ge J, Sun L, Zhang F-R et al (2016) A stretchable electronic fabric artificial skin with pressure-, lateral strain-, and flexion-sensitive properties. Adv Mater 28:722–728

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36

    Sun Q, Seung W, Kim BJ et al (2015) Active matrix electronic skin strain sensor based on piezopotential-powered graphene transistors. Adv Mater 27:3411–3417

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37

    Chen S, Wei Y, Wei S et al (2016) Ultrasensitive cracking-assisted strain sensors based on silver nanowires/graphene hybrid particles. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 8:25563–25570

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38

    Kim KK, Hong S, Cho HM et al (2015) Highly sensitive and stretchable multidimensional strain sensor with prestrained anisotropic metal nanowire percolation networks. Nano Lett 15:5240–5247

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39

    Bae GY, Pak SW, Kim D et al (2016) Linearly and highly pressure-sensitive electronic skin based on a bioinspired hierarchical structural array. Adv Mater 28:5300–5306

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40

    Ekbom K, Ulfberg J (2009) Restless legs syndrome. J Intern Med 266:419–431

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51573053), the Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province (Grant No. 2014A010105022), the Special Funds for Applied Science and Technology Research and Development of Guangdong Province (Grant No. 2015B020237004), and the Special Funds for the Cultivation of Guangdong College Students’ Scientific and Technological Innovation (Grant No. pdjh2017b0039).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Lan Liu.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 4831 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Chen, S., Liu, S., Wang, P. et al. Highly stretchable fiber-shaped e-textiles for strain/pressure sensing, full-range human motions detection, health monitoring, and 2D force mapping. J Mater Sci 53, 2995–3005 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-017-1644-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • High Stretchability
  • Full Detection Range
  • Strain Sensors
  • AgNW Network
  • Hierarchical Fiber