Microstructure–toughness relationships in calcium aluminate cement–polymer composites using instrumented scratch testing

Abstract

We investigate the influence of the microstructure on the fracture properties of calcium aluminate cement/polymer composites. We carry out microscopic scratch tests during which a Rockwell C diamond probe pushes across the surface of a polished specimen under a linearly increasing vertical force. We extend the scratch fracture method to heterogeneous materials. The scratch test induces a ductile-to-brittle transition as the penetration depth increases. Scanning electron microscopy imaging shows that the low porosity and the strong cement-binder interphase favor toughening mechanisms such as crack trapping and bridging. Nonlinear fracture mechanics theory yields the fracture toughness in the fracture-driven regime. The fracture toughness of macro-defect-free (MDF) cement is found to decrease as the polymer-to-cement ratio increases. This decrease in the fracture resistance can be explained by the decrease in anhydrous cement content and the increase in the inter-particle distance between cement grains. By evaluating the fracture toughness of the micro-constituents of MDF cement, we show that the high value of the fracture toughness at the composite level stems from tough calcium aluminate phases and a highly packed non-porous granular microstructure.

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Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the support of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and the UIUC CEE Structural Engineering group that provided a fellowship to Kevin Anderson during his Master studies. This investigation was funded by Prof. Akono’s start-up funds which were sponsored by the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and the College of Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. We are grateful to Prof. Leslie J. Struble for invaluable insights into the chemistry and microstructure of macro-defect-free cement. We acknowledge the generosity of industrial partners such as Kerneos and Kuraray that have provided free calcium aluminate cement and poly(vinyl alcohol-co-acetate) samples. Finally, part of this research was carried out at the Frederick Seitz Research Materials Laboratory.

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Correspondence to Ange-Therese Akono.

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Anderson, K., Akono, A. Microstructure–toughness relationships in calcium aluminate cement–polymer composites using instrumented scratch testing. J Mater Sci 52, 13120–13132 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-017-1416-8

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Keywords

  • Scratch Test
  • Cement Grains
  • Crack Houses
  • Calcium Aluminate Cement (CAC)
  • Scratch Probe