Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 52, Issue 20, pp 12506–12512

In situ temperature sensing with fluorescent chitosan-coated PNIPAAm/alginate beads

  • Michele Barbieri
  • Filippo Cellini
  • Ilaria Cacciotti
  • Sean D. Peterson
  • Maurizio Porfiri
Polymers

Abstract

The interest in the development of non-contact temperature sensors for particle image velocimetry (PIV) is continuously growing. The integration of thermochromic tracers in PIV represents a critical step forward in experimental fluid mechanics, which would enable detailed full-field analysis of thermal and environmental flows. In this paper, interpenetrated polymer networks (IPN) PNIPAAm/alginate loaded with Nile Red (NR) fluorescent dye are used to develop beads for simultaneous non-contact temperature sensing and flow tracing in fluids. The novel IPN beads are coated with chitosan to properly modulate particle permeability in water. The thermochromic response of the fluorescent tracers is studied through fluorescence spectroscopy, evidencing an increase in the NR fluorescence emission up to twenty times above the lower critical solution temperature of PNIPAAm. These findings confirm the potential of fluorescent chitosan-coated PNIPAAm/alginate beads for in situ temperature in PIV.

References

  1. 1.
    Abram C, Fond B, Heyes AL, Beyrau F (2013) High-speed planar thermometry and velocimetry using thermographic phosphor particles. Appl Phys B-Lasers Opt 111(2):155–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dabiri D (2009) Digital particle image thermometry/velocimetry: a review. Exp Fluids 46(2):191–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Adrian RJ, Westerweel J (2011) Particle image velocimetry. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schulz S, Brack S, Terzis A, von Wolfersdorf J, Ott P (2016) On the effects of coating thickness in transient heat transfer experiments using thermochromic liquid crystals. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 70:196–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhu C, Deng R, Zeng J, Khalil GE, Dabiri D, Gu ZZ, Xia YN (2013) Synthesis and characterization of pressure and temperature dual-responsive polystyrene microbeads. Part Part Syst Charact 30(6):542–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Massing J, Kaden D, Kahler CJ, Cierpka C (2016) Luminescent two-color tracer particles for simultaneous velocity and temperature measurements in microfluidics. Meas Sci Technol 27(11):115301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen CY, Chen CT (2011) A PNIPAM-based fluorescent nanothermometer with ratiometric readout. Chem Commun 47(3):994–996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shiraishi Y, Miyamoto R, Zhang X, Hirai T (2007) Rhodamine-based fluorescent thermometer exhibiting selective emission enhancement at a specific temperature range. Org Lett 9(20):3921–3924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yoshinari E, Furukawa H, Horie K (2005) Fluorescence study on the mechanism of rapid shrinking of grafted poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) gels and semi-IPN gels. Polymer 46(18):7741–7748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cellini F, Peterson SD, Porfiri M (2017) Simultaneous sensing of fluid velocity and temperature using particle tracers embedding nitrobenzofurazan functionalized thermosensitive hydrogels. In: Proceedings of the SPIE 10168, sensors and smart structures technologies for civil, mechanical, and aerospace systemsGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Inoue H, Kuwahara S, Katayama K (2013) The whole process of phase transition and relaxation of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) aqueous solution. Phys Chem Chem Phys 15(11):3814–3819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ehrenhofer A, Bingel G, Paschew G, Tietze M, Schroder R, Richter A, Wallmersperger T (2016) Permeation control in hydrogel-layered patterned PET membranes with defined switchable pore geometry—experiments and numerical simulation. Sens Actuators B-Chem 232:499–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Park TG, Choi HK (1998) Thermally induced core-shell type hydrogel beads having interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) structure. Macromol Rapid Commun 19(4):167–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shi J, Alves NM, Mano JF (2008) Chitosan coated alginate beads containing poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) for dual-stimuli-responsive drug release. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 84(2):595–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hernàndez R, Mijangos C (2009) In situ synthesis of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in thermally responsive alginate-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks. Macromol Rapid Commun 30(3):176–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ju HK, Kim SY, Kim SJ, Lee YM (2002) pH/temperature-responsive semi-IPN hydrogels composed of alginate and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). J Appl Polym Sci 83(5):1128–1139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lee SB, Park EK, Lim YM, Cho SK, Kim SY, Lee YM, Nho YC (2006) Preparation of alginate/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) semi-interpenetrating and fully interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels with γ-ray irradiation and their swelling behaviors. J Appl Polym Sci 100(6):4439–4446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhang G-Q, Zha L-S, Zhou M-H, Ma J-H, Liang B-R (2005) Rapid deswelling of sodium alginate/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) semi-interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels in response to temperature and pH changes. Colloid Polym Sci 283(4):431–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    de Moura MR, Aouada FA, Favaro SL, Radovanovic E, Rubira AF, Muniz EC (2009) Release of BSA from porous matrices constituted of alginate–Ca2 + and PNIPAAm-interpenetrated networks. Mater Sci Eng, C 29(8):2319–2325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    de Moura MR, Guilherme MR, Campese GM, Radovanovic E, Rubira AF, Muniz EC (2005) Porous alginate-Ca2 + hydrogels interpenetrated with PNIPAAm networks: interrelationship between compressive stress and pore morphology. Eur Polym J 41(12):2845–2852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    de Moura MR, Aouada AF, Guilherme MR, Radovanovic E, Rubira AF, Muniz EC (2006) Thermo-sensitive IPN hydrogels composed of PNIPAAm gels supported on alginate-Ca2+ with LCST tailored close to human body temperature. Polym Test 25(7):961–969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Guilherme MR, Toledo EA, Rubira AF, Muniz EC (2002) Water affinity and permeability in membranes of alginate-Ca2+ containing poly(n-isopropylacrylamide). J Membr Sci 210(1):129–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Petrusic S, Lewandowski M, Giraud S, Jovancic P, Bugarski B, Ostojic S, Koncar V (2012) Development and characterization of thermosensitive hydrogels based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and calcium alginate. J Appl Polym Sci 124:890–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shi J, Alves NM, Mano JF (2006) Drug release of pH/temperature-responsive calcium alginate/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) semi-IPN beads. Macromol Biosci 6(5):358–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cellini F, Block L, Li J, Khapli S, Peterson SD, Porfiri M (2016) Mechanochromic response of pyrene functionalized nanocomposite hydrogels. Sens Actuators B-Chem 234:510–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sun BJ, Lin YA, Wu PY (2007) Structure analysis of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) using near-infrared spectroscopy and generalized two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy. Appl Spectrosc 61(7):765–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Deepa B, Abraham E, Pothan LA, Cordeiro N, Faria M, Thomas S (2016) Biodegradable nanocomposite films based on sodium alginate and cellulose nanofibrils. Materials 9(1):50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mohan YM, Premkimar T, Joseph DK, Geckeler KE (2007) Stimuli-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-sodium acrylate) hydrogels: a swelling study in surfactant and polymer solutions. React Funct Polym 67(9):844–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sackett DL, Wolff J (1987) Nile Red as a polarity-sensitive fluorescent-probe of hydrophobic protein surfaces. Anal Biochem 167(2):228–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Uchiyama S, Matsumura Y, de Silva AP, Iwai K (2003) Fluorescent molecular thermometers based on polymers showing temperature-induced phase transitions and labeled with polarity-responsive benzofurazans. Anal Chem 75(21):5926–5935CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michele Barbieri
    • 1
  • Filippo Cellini
    • 2
  • Ilaria Cacciotti
    • 1
  • Sean D. Peterson
    • 2
    • 3
  • Maurizio Porfiri
    • 2
  1. 1.Engineering DepartmentUniversity of Rome ‘‘Niccolò Cusano’’, INSTM RURomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringNew York University Tandon School of EngineeringBrooklynUSA
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics EngineeringUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada

Personalised recommendations