Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 52, Issue 9, pp 5309–5323 | Cite as

Understanding the structure–property relationships of the ferroelectric to relaxor transition of the (1 − x)BaTiO3–(x)BiInO3 lead-free piezoelectric system

  • Alicia Manjón-Sanz
  • Caitlin Berger
  • Michelle R. Dolgos
Original Paper

Abstract

A structural and electromechanical investigation has been performed on (1 − x)BaTiO3–(x)BiInO3 in the region 0.03 ≤ x ≤ 0.12. A gradual structural phase transition has been observed where the structure changes from tetragonal (P4mm) and passes through two regions of coexisting phases: (1) P4mm + R3m in the range 0.03 ≤ x ≤ 0.075 and (2) \( Pm\bar{3}m \) + R3m for 0.10 ≤ x ≤ 0.12. The properties also transition from ferroelectric (x ≤ 0.03) to relaxor ferroelectric (x ≥ 0.05) as the dielectric permittivity maximum becomes temperature and frequency dependent. This transition was also confirmed via polarization-electric field measurements as well as strain-electric field measurements. At the critical composition of x = 0.065, a moderate strain of ~0.104% and an effective piezoelectric coefficient (d33*) of 260 pm/V were observed. The original purpose of this study was to demonstrate the polarization extension mechanism as predicted in the literature, but due to the ferroelectric to relaxor transition, this mechanism was not found to be present in this system. However, this demonstrates that BaTiO3-based lead-free ceramics could be modified to obtain enhanced electromechanical properties for actuator applications.

Supplementary material

10853_2017_770_MOESM1_ESM.docx (8.8 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 9057 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alicia Manjón-Sanz
    • 1
  • Caitlin Berger
    • 1
  • Michelle R. Dolgos
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA

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