Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 52, Issue 4, pp 2319–2328 | Cite as

In situ mixed potential study of the growth of zinc oxide hierarchical nanostructures by wet oxidation of zinc foil

  • Mary Donnabelle L. Balela
  • Christian Mark O. Pelicano
  • Zainovia Lockman
Original Paper


Hierarchical zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were successfully grown by oxidation of etched Zn foil in water at 90 °C. The morphology of the ZnO nanostructures evolved from nanorods to hexagonal nanotubes then to flower-like structures with continued oxidation. Etching of the foil possibly promotes the growth of these ZnO nanostructures by creating inhomogeneities on the surface of the foil, which act as nucleation sites. In situ mixed potential measurement in combination with thermodynamic calculation was performed to elucidate the effect of temperature on the formation of the ZnO hierarchical nanostructures. The mixed potential increased with higher oxidation temperatures, suggesting enhanced oxidation.



This study was supported by the Department of Science and Technology under the Engineering Research and Development for Technology Scholarship Fund and the College of Engineering, University of the Philippines under the Faculty Research Incentive Award. Partial fund from Long Term Research Grant, Ministry of Education Malaysia, Project 2, 304/PBAHAN/6050235, Universiti Sains Malaysia is also acknowledged.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mary Donnabelle L. Balela
    • 1
  • Christian Mark O. Pelicano
    • 1
  • Zainovia Lockman
    • 2
  1. 1.Sustainable Electronic Materials Group, Department of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringUniversity of the PhilippinesQuezon CityPhilippines
  2. 2.School of Materials and Mineral Resources EngineeringUniversiti Sains MalaysiaNibong TebalMalaysia

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