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Domain imaging in ferroelectric thin films via channeling-contrast backscattered electron microscopy

Abstract

Ferroelastic domain walls provide opportunities for deterministically controlling mechanical, optical, electrical, and thermal energy. Domain wall characterization in micro- and nanoscale systems, where their spacing may be of the order of 100 nm or less is presently limited to only a few techniques, such as piezoresponse force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. These respective techniques cannot, however, independently characterize domain polarization orientation and domain wall motion in technologically relevant capacitor structures or in a non-destructive manner, thus presenting a limitation of their utility. In this work, we show how backscatter scanning electron microscopy utilizing channeling contrast yield can image the ferroelastic domain structure of ferroelectric films with domain wall spacing as narrow as 10 nm. Combined with electron backscatter diffraction to identify grain orientations, this technique provides information on domain orientation and domain wall type that cannot be readily measured using conventional non-destructive methods. In addition to grain orientation identification, this technique enables dynamic domain structure changes to be observed in functioning capacitors utilizing electrodes that are transparent to the high-energy backscattered electrons. This non-destructive, high-resolution domain imaging technique is applicable to a wide variety of ferroelectric thin films and a multitude of material systems where nanometer-scale crystallographic twin characterization is required.

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Acknowledgements

Critical review of this manuscript by Dr. Stanley Chou is greatly appreciated. This research was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories, a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. J-P.M. acknowledges support from NSF contract DMR-1508191.

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Correspondence to Jon F. Ihlefeld.

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Ihlefeld, J.F., Michael, J.R., McKenzie, B.B. et al. Domain imaging in ferroelectric thin films via channeling-contrast backscattered electron microscopy. J Mater Sci 52, 1071–1081 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-016-0402-x

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Keywords

  • Domain Wall
  • Domain Orientation
  • Stripe Domain
  • Ferroelectric Thin Film
  • Bilayer Film