Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 52, Issue 2, pp 749–759 | Cite as

Chemical surface modification of graphene oxide by femtosecond laser pulse irradiation in aqueous suspensions

  • Muttaqin
  • Takahiro Nakamura
  • Yuta Nishina
  • Shunichi Sato
Original Paper


Reduction of graphene oxide (GO) by femtosecond laser pulse irradiation of an aqueous suspension was studied. Different laser parameters such as laser fluence and irradiation time were scanned to obtain the optimum reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with fewer defect sites and lower electrical resistivity. The fabricated rGO samples were characterized using several techniques such as X-ray diffraction, UV–Visible absorption spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and others. The XRD profiles of rGO revealed that the interplanar spacing between carbon layers significantly decreased to 3.51 Å, which is close to that of pristine graphite. Furthermore, the intensity ratio of D and G bands of rGO measured by Raman spectroscopy was more than 20 % smaller than that of GO, indicating the enhancement of sp2 domains. It is noted that the defect sites and the disorder carbon double bond networks on the basal graphene plane were relatively decreased after reduction. In addition, the electrical resistivity of rGO significantly decreased to 3.3 Ω·cm under the optimum condition. From these results, femtosecond laser can be used as a suitable tool for GO reduction because it is a simple, controllable, and flexible method for getting highly reduced graphene oxide.


Graphene Oxide Femtosecond Laser Graphene Sheet Reduce Graphene Oxide Laser Fluence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors would like to acknowledge Mr. Yoshihiro Ojiro, Dr. Shuichi Ogawa, and Prof. Yuji Takakuwa for measurement of electrical resistibility of GO and rGO using a four-point probe method. The first author is financially supported by Indonesia Endowment Fund for Education (LPDP).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests.

Supplementary material

10853_2016_368_MOESM1_ESM.tif (76 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (TIFF 75 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muttaqin
    • 1
  • Takahiro Nakamura
    • 1
  • Yuta Nishina
    • 2
  • Shunichi Sato
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM)Tohoku UniversitySendaiJapan
  2. 2.Research Core for Interdisciplinary SciencesOkayama UniversityOkayamaJapan

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