Through-thickness permeability modelling of woven fabric under out-of-plane deformation

Abstract

When a woven fabric is subject to a normal uniform loading, its properties such as tightness and through-thickness permeability are both altered, which relates to the fabric out-of-plane deformation (OPD) and dynamic permeability (DP). In this article, fabric OPD is analytically modelled through an energy minimisation method, and corresponding fabric DP is established as the function of loading and fabric-deformed structure. The total model shows the permeability a decrease for tight fabric and an increase for loose fabric when the uniform loading increases. This is verified experimentally by fabric OPD, static and dynamic permeabilities. Experimental tests for both permeabilities showed good agreement with the corresponding predictions, indicating the fact that tight fabric becomes denser and loose fabric gets more porous during OPD. A sensitivity study showed that an increase of fabric Young’s modulus or a decrease of fabric test radius both lead to an increase of DP for tight fabric and opposite for loose fabric. The critical fabric porosity and thickness were found for inflexion of fabric DP trend during the OPD, which contributes to the optimum design of interlacing structure applied to protective textiles and composites.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16

References

  1. 1.

    Somodi Z, Rolich T, Hursa A (2010) Micromechanical tensile model of woven fabric and parameter optimization for fit with KES data. Text Res J 80(13):1255–1264

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    King MJ, Jearanaisilawong P, Socrate S (2005) A continuum constitutive model for the mechanical behavior of woven fabrics. Int J Solids Struct 42:3867–3896

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Lin H, Clifford MJ, Taylor PM, Long AC (2009) 3D mathematical modeling for robotic pick up of textile composites. Compos B 40:705–713

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Gebart BR (1992) Permeability of unidirectional reinforcements for RTM. J Compos Mater 26(8):1101–1133

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Cai Z, Berdichevesky AL (1993) An improved self-consistent method for estimating the permeability of a fiber assembly. Polym Compos 14(4):314–323

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Bruschke MV, Advani SG (1993) Flow of generalized Newtonian fluids across a periodic array of cylinders. J Rheol 37(3):479–497

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Westhuizen JV, Plessis JPD (1996) An attempt to quantify fibre bed permeability utilizing the phase average Navier–Stokes equation. Compos A 27A:263–269

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Advani SG, Bruschke MV, Parnas RS (1994) Resin transfer molding flow phenomena in polymeric composites. In: Advani SG (ed) Flow and rheology in polymer composites manufacturing. Elsevier, Amsterdam

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Kulichenko AV (2005) Theoretical analysis, calculation, and prediction of the air permeability of textiles. Fibre Chem 37(5):371–380

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Xiao X, Zeng X, Long A, Cliford MJ, Lin H, Saldaeva E (2012) An analytical model for through-thickness permeability of woven fabric. Text Res J 82(5):492–501

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Phelan JF, Wise G (1996) Analysis of transverse flow in aligned fibrous porous media. Compos A 27A(1):25–34

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Ugural AC (1999) Stresses in plates and shells, 2nd edn. McGRAW HILL International editions, Singapore, p 502

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Ly NG, Tester DH, Buckenham P, Roczniok AF, Adriaansen AL, Scaysbrook F, De Jong S (1991) Simple instruments for quality control by finishers and tailors. Text Res J 61(7):402–406

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Image-J (2012) Available from: http://rsbweb.nih.gov/ij/features.html. Accessed on 2012 17/05

  15. 15.

    Chan CK, Jiang XY, Liew KL, Chan LK, Wong WK, Lau MP (2006) Evaluation of mechanical properties of uniform fabrics in garment manufacturing. J Mater Process Technol 174(1–3):183–189

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Hursa A, Rolich T, Razic SE (2009) Determining pseudo Poisson’s ratio of woven fabric with a digital image correlation method. Text Res J 79(17):1588–1598

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Bandara P, Lawrence C, Mahmoudi M (2006) Instrumentation for the measurement of fabric air permeability at higher pressure levels. Meas Sci Technol 17:2247–2255

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Xiao X, Zeng X, Bandara P, Long A (2012) Experimental study of dynamic air permeability for woven fabrics. Text Res J 82(9):920–930

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Lu Y, Dai X (2009) Calculation of fabrics Poisson’s ratio based on biaxial extension. J Text Res 30(9):25–28

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Airbags International Ltd. for providing experimental materials, Leeds University and UK Unilever Resources Centre for undertaking the experimental tests.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Xueliang Xiao.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Xiao, X., Long, A. & Zeng, X. Through-thickness permeability modelling of woven fabric under out-of-plane deformation. J Mater Sci 49, 7563–7574 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-014-8465-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Fabric Thickness
  • Loose Fabric
  • Fabric Deformation
  • Weft Yarn
  • Warp Yarn