Through-thickness permeability modelling of woven fabric under out-of-plane deformation


When a woven fabric is subject to a normal uniform loading, its properties such as tightness and through-thickness permeability are both altered, which relates to the fabric out-of-plane deformation (OPD) and dynamic permeability (DP). In this article, fabric OPD is analytically modelled through an energy minimisation method, and corresponding fabric DP is established as the function of loading and fabric-deformed structure. The total model shows the permeability a decrease for tight fabric and an increase for loose fabric when the uniform loading increases. This is verified experimentally by fabric OPD, static and dynamic permeabilities. Experimental tests for both permeabilities showed good agreement with the corresponding predictions, indicating the fact that tight fabric becomes denser and loose fabric gets more porous during OPD. A sensitivity study showed that an increase of fabric Young’s modulus or a decrease of fabric test radius both lead to an increase of DP for tight fabric and opposite for loose fabric. The critical fabric porosity and thickness were found for inflexion of fabric DP trend during the OPD, which contributes to the optimum design of interlacing structure applied to protective textiles and composites.

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The authors would like to thank Airbags International Ltd. for providing experimental materials, Leeds University and UK Unilever Resources Centre for undertaking the experimental tests.

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Correspondence to Xueliang Xiao.

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Xiao, X., Long, A. & Zeng, X. Through-thickness permeability modelling of woven fabric under out-of-plane deformation. J Mater Sci 49, 7563–7574 (2014).

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  • Fabric Thickness
  • Loose Fabric
  • Fabric Deformation
  • Weft Yarn
  • Warp Yarn