Skip to main content

Investigating corrosion effects and heat transfer enhancement in smaller size radiators using CNT-nanofluids

Abstract

Nanofluids have been extensively studied in the past to enhance the heat transfer performance and efficiency of systems. However, corrosion effects have been paid very little attention and thus this work presents an experimental study on the effect of carbon nanotubes (CNT) on corrosion of three different metals under study such as aluminium alloy, stainless steel and copper, respectively. The work was further extended to study the heat transfer performance in a car radiator of two different sizes. Both the studies were performed using four different fluids such as water, ethylene glycol, 0.02 % CNT-nanofluid and 0.1 % CNT-nanofluid, respectively. It was observed that among the three metals, the highest rate of corrosion occurs to aluminium, followed by stainless steel and copper, irrespective of the fluid used. The rate of corrosion increased with the increase in temperature (27–90 °C) in all cases. The experimental results showed that the stable CNT-nanofluids prepared in this work showed better heat transfer performance in both engines. Moreover, the smaller radiator using the CNT-nanofluids depicted enhanced heat transfer rates compared to the standard radiator using water and ethylene glycol.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10

References

  1. Choi SUS (1995) Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles. In: Siginer DA, Wang HP (eds) Developments and applications of non-newtonian flows. ASME, New York, pp 99–105

    Google Scholar 

  2. Taylor R, Coulombe S, Otanicar T et al (2013) Small particles, big impacts: a review of the diverse applications of nanofluids. J Appl Phys 113:011301–011319

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Fan J, Wang L (2011) Review of heat conduction in nanofluids. J Heat Transfer 133:040801-1–040801-14

    Google Scholar 

  4. Yu W, Xie H (2012) A review on nanofluids: preparation, stability mechanisms, and applications. J Nano Mater. doi:10.1155/2012/435873

    Google Scholar 

  5. Wang XQ, Mujumdar AS (2008) A review on nanofluids—part I: theoretical and numerical investigations. Braz J Chem Eng 25:613–630

    Google Scholar 

  6. Kakaç S, Pramuanjaroenkij A (2009) Review of convective heat transfer enhancement with nanofluids. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 52:3187–3196

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Lee JH, Lee SH, Choi J, Jang SP, Choi SUS (2010) A review of thermal conductivity data, mechanics and models for nanofluids. Int J Micro-Nano Scale Transp 1:269–322

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Dresselhaus MS, Dresselhaus G, Charlier JC, Ernandez EH (2004) Thermal and mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes. Philos Trans R Soc Lond A 362:2065–2098

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Ding Y, Alias H, Wen D, Williams RA (2006) Heat transfer of aqueous suspensions of carbon nanotubes (CNT nanofluids). Int J Heat Mass Transfer 49:240–250

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Rashmi W, Ismail AF, Khalid M (2012) Thermal conductivity of carbon nanotube nanofluid-Experimental and theoretical study. Heat Tran Asian Res 41:145–163

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Xie H, Lee H, Youn W, Choi M (2003) Nanofluids containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes and their enhanced thermal conductivities. J Appl Phys 94:4967–4971

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Rashmi W, Khalid M, Ismail AF, Saidur R, Rasheed AK (2013) Experimental and numerical investigation of heat transfer in CNT nanofluids. J Exp Nanosci. doi:10.1080/17458080.2013.848296

    Google Scholar 

  13. Rashmi W, Ismail AF, Sopyan I, Jameel AT, Yusof F, Khalid M (2011) Stability and thermal conductivity enhancement of carbon nanotube nanofluid using gum Arabic. J Exp Nanosci 6:567–579

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Liu MS, Lin MCC, Huang IT, Wang CC (2005) Enhancement of thermal conductivity with carbon nanotube for nanofluids. Int Commun Heat Mass 32:1202–1210

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Khomami MN, Danaee I, Attar AA, Peykari M (2012) Effects of NO2 and NO3 ions on corrosion of AISI 4130 steel in ethylene glycol+water electrolyte. Trans Indian Inst Met 65:303–311

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. May PM, Ritchie IM, Tan ET (1991) The corrosion of copper in ethylene glycol–water mixtures containing chloride ions. J Appl Electrochem 21:358–364

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Liu Y, Cheng YF (2009) Cathodic reaction kinetics and its implication on flow-assisted corrosion of aluminum alloy in aqueous ethylene glycol solution. J Appl Electrochem 39:1267–1272

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Liu Y, Cheng YF (2011) Characterization of passivity and pitting corrosion of 3003 aluminum alloy in ethylene glycol–water solutions. J Appl Electrochem 41:151–159

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Liu Y, Cheng YF (2011) Inhibition of corrosion of 3003 aluminum alloy in ethylene glycol–water solution. J Mater Eng Perform 20:271–275

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Niu L, Cheng YF (2007) Electrochemical characterization of metastable pitting of 3003 aluminum alloy in ethylene glycol–water solution. J Mater Sci 42:8613–8617. doi:10.1007/s10853-007-1841-1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Celata GP, D’Annibale F, Mariani A (2011) Nanofluid flow effects on metal surfaces. Energ Ambiente e Innovazione 4–5:94–98

    Google Scholar 

  22. Singh D, Toutbort J, Chen G, (2006) Heavy vehicle systems optimization merit review and peer evaluation. Annual Report, Argonne National Laboratory, USA

  23. Sahoo RR, Bhattacharjee S, Das T (2013) Development of nanofluids as lubricant to study friction and wear behavior of stainless steels. Int J Mod Phys Conf Ser. doi:10.1142/S2010194513010829

    Google Scholar 

  24. Arthur DE, Jonathan A, Ameh PO, Anya C (2013) A review on the assessment of polymeric materials used as corrosion inhibitor of metals and alloys. Int J Ind Chem. doi:10.1186/2228-5547-4-2

    Google Scholar 

  25. Kesavan D, Gopiraman M, Sulochana N (2012) Green inhibitors for corrosion of metals: a review. Chem Sci Rev Lett 1:1–8

    Google Scholar 

  26. Rani BEA, Basu BBJ (2012) Green inhibitors for corrosion protection of metals and alloys: an overview. Int J Corros. doi:10.1155/2012/380217

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to W. Rashmi.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Rashmi, W., Ismail, A.F., Khalid, M. et al. Investigating corrosion effects and heat transfer enhancement in smaller size radiators using CNT-nanofluids. J Mater Sci 49, 4544–4551 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-014-8154-y

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-014-8154-y

Keywords

  • Heat Transfer
  • Aluminium Alloy
  • Corrosion Rate
  • Heat Transfer Rate
  • Engine Speed