Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 48, Issue 2, pp 665–673 | Cite as

Synthesis and characterization of iron-substituted hydroxyapatite via a simple ion-exchange procedure

  • Erica R. Kramer
  • Aimee M. Morey
  • Margo Staruch
  • Steven L. Suib
  • Menka Jain
  • Joseph I. Budnick
  • Mei Wei


Hydroxyapatite (HA), the main inorganic component of natural bones, is widely studied as a biomaterial due to its excellent biocompatibility and osteoinductivity. The crystal structure of HA lends itself to a wide variety of substitutions and ion doping, which allows for tailoring of material properties. In this study, iron-doped HA was synthesized via a simple ion-exchange procedure and characterized thoroughly for crystal structure and phase purity using X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Magnetic properties were studied using vibrating sample magnetometer and superconducting quantum interference device analysis. Ion-exchange was attempted using both ferric and ferrous chloride iron solutions, but a substitution was only achieved using ferric chloride solution. The results showed that after iron substitution the powder retained characteristic apatite crystal structure and functional groups, but the iron-doped samples displayed paramagnetic properties, as opposed to the diamagnetism of pure HA. The effect of soaking time on iron content was also examined, and collectively X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy results suggested that an increase in soaking time led to an increase in iron content in the sample powder. Iron-substituted HA nanoparticles, a biomaterial with magnetic properties, could be a promising biomaterial to be used in a variety of biomedical fields, including magnetic imaging, drug delivery, or hyperthermia-based cancer treatments.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erica R. Kramer
    • 1
  • Aimee M. Morey
    • 2
  • Margo Staruch
    • 3
  • Steven L. Suib
    • 2
  • Menka Jain
    • 3
  • Joseph I. Budnick
    • 3
  • Mei Wei
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringInstitute of Materials Science, University of ConnecticutStorrsUSA
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryUniversity of ConnecticutStorrsUSA
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsUniversity of ConnecticutStorrsUSA

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