Skip to main content
Log in

Surface modification of Scots pine: the effect of process parameters on the through thickness density profile

  • Published:
Journal of Materials Science Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

This study evaluated the significance of different process parameters (press temperature, closing time, holding time, moisture content and compression ratio) on solid wood surface densification and its effect on the density profile generated in Scots pine sapwood. Changes in the microstructure of the wood were also evaluated microscopically. The results showed that with a shorter closing time, densification occurred closer to the sample surface than with an extended closing time. At a compression temperature of 150 °C, the vertical density profile exhibited a sharp peak in density that was close to the wood surface. A higher temperature of 200 °C resulted in a slightly broader density peak that was less intense and further from the surface. A holding time of 10 min resulted in the wood compressing to a slightly greater extent than when using a holding time of 1 min. Higher moisture content led to more extensive deformation. The results indicate that surface modification by densification is a viable method of enhancing wood properties.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Kellog RM, Wangaard FF (1969) Wood Fiber Sci 1:180

    Google Scholar 

  2. Wilfong JG (1966) For Prod J 16:55

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Hillis WE, Rozsa AN (1978) Holzforschung 32:68

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Salmén L (1990) In: Proceedings of materials research society symposium

  5. Uhmeir A, Morooka T, Norimoto M (1998) Holzforschung 52:77

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Navi P, Girardet F (2000) Holzforschung 54:287

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Navi P, Heger F (2004) MRS Bull 29:332

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Kutnar A, Kamke FA, Sernek M (2008) Holz Roh Werkst 66:439

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Kutnar A, Kamke FA, Sernek M (2009) Wood Sci Technol 43:57

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Fukuta S, Asada F, Yasutoshi S (2008) For Prod J 58:82

    Google Scholar 

  11. Pizzi A, Leban J-M, Zanetti M, Pichelin F, Wieland S, Properzi M (2005) Holz Roh Werkst 63:251

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Rautkari L, Properzi M, Pichelin F, Hughes M (2008) In: Proceedings of 10th world conference on timber engineering

  13. Rautkari L, Properzi M, Pichelin F, Hughes M (2009) Wood Sci Technol 43:291

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Rautkari L, Properzi M, Pichelin F, Hughes M (2010) Wood Sci Technol 44:679

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Lamason C, Gong M (2007) For Prod J 57:64

    Google Scholar 

  16. Tarkow H, Seborg R (1968) For Prod J 18:104

    Google Scholar 

  17. Wong ED, Zhang M, Wang Q, Kawai S (1998) J Wood Sci 44:287

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Wang S, Winistorfer PM, Young TM, Helton C (2001) Holz Roh Werkst 59:19

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Camm A, Quilter K (2001) In: Proceedings of the fifth panel products symposium. Llandudno, Wales, UK

  20. Cai Z, Muehl JH, Winandy JE (2006) For Prod J 56:20

    Google Scholar 

  21. Wang JY, Cooper PA (2005) Holz Roh Werkst 63:397

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Gong M, Lamason C, Li L (2010) J Mater Process Technol 210:293

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Welzbacher CR, Wehsener J, Rapp AO, Haller P (2008) Holz Roh Werkst 66:39

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Tabarsa T, Chui YH (1997) For Prod J 47:71

    Google Scholar 

  25. Inoue M, Norimoto M, Otsuka Y, Yamada T (1991) Mokuzai Gakkaishi 37:227

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The study was partly funded by the Finnish Cultural Foundation and the Vocational Training Foundation of Woodworking Men. This study was partly carried out in BC, Bangor University (UK) and Aalto University (Finland). Authors acknowledge all support what have been given those institutions.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Lauri Rautkari.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Rautkari, L., Laine, K., Laflin, N. et al. Surface modification of Scots pine: the effect of process parameters on the through thickness density profile. J Mater Sci 46, 4780–4786 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-011-5388-9

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-011-5388-9

Keywords

Navigation