Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 43, Issue 8, pp 2536–2540 | Cite as

Composites of bovine hydroxyapatite (BHA) and ZnO

  • Oguzhan Gunduz
  • Eray M. Erkan
  • Sibel Daglilar
  • Serdar Salman
  • Simeon Agathopoulos
  • Faik Nuzhet OktarEmail author


Composites of calcinated bovine bone-derived hydroxyapatite (BHA), doped with 2.5, 5, and 10 wt.% ZnO were produced by sintering. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis together with measurements of density, compressive strength, and Vickers microhardness were carried out in the sintered samples. The experimental results showed that the best mechanical properties were achieved in the samples with 5% addition of ZnO. The highest value of compression strength was achieved after sintering at 1200 °C (72 MPa) and of microhardness at 1300 °C (548 HV). Prolong heat treatment at 1300 °C results in vulnerable BHA–ZnO composites to over-firing effect.


Compressive Strength Vickers Microhardness Fluorapatite Secondary Porosity Bovine Bone 
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This study was carried out with the financial support of the Turkish Republic Government Planning Organization in the framework of the Project “Manufacturing and Characterization of Electro-Conductive Bioceramics” with project number 2003 K120810. The authors also acknowledge the technical support of assistant O. Meydanoglu, associate professor G. Goller, professor E.S. Kayali from Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department of Istanbul Technical University, and L.S. Ozyegin from Dental Technical School of Health Related Professions, Istanbul, Turkey, for BHA production. The work of S. Agathopoulos in this paper has been in the framework of the Project ENTER 04EP26, co-financed by E.U.-European Social Fund (75%) and the Greek Ministry of Development-GSRT (25%). O. Gunduz also acknowledges the support of Prof. M. Edirisinghe from University College London where he is spending a sabbatical year.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oguzhan Gunduz
    • 1
    • 2
  • Eray M. Erkan
    • 3
  • Sibel Daglilar
    • 3
  • Serdar Salman
    • 1
    • 4
  • Simeon Agathopoulos
    • 5
  • Faik Nuzhet Oktar
    • 6
    • 7
    Email author
  1. 1.Metal Education Department, Technical Education SchoolMarmara UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Mechanical EngineeringLondon University CollegeLondonUK
  3. 3.Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Chemistry and Metallurgical SchoolYildiz Technical UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  4. 4.Georgia Institute of TechnologyEngineering College, Material Science and Engineering SchoolAtlantaUSA
  5. 5.Materials Science and Engineering DepartmentIoannina UniversityIoanninaGreece
  6. 6.Industrial Engineering Department, Engineering SchoolMarmara UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  7. 7.Radiology Department, Health Related Professions SchoolMarmara UniversityIstanbulTurkey

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