Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 41, Issue 1, pp 211–216 | Cite as

Ferroelectric transducer arrays for transdermal insulin delivery

  • Benjamin Snyder
  • Seungjun Lee
  • Nadine Barrie SmithEmail author
  • Robert E. Newnham


The goal of this research was the development of a portable therapeutic device for the treatment of diabetes. A 3×3 cymbal array has been successfully tested in noninvasive insulin delivery experiments. The cymbal is a composite flextensional transducer constructed from a poled PZT ceramic and shaped metal endcaps that amplify the transducer motions by two orders of magnitude. Nine cymbals are wired in parallel and potted in polyurethane to form the flat panel arrays. When driven near resonance (20 kHz), the array generated a low intensity acoustic beam of 100 mW/cm2. Animal experiments on hyperglycemic rats and rabbits demonstrated the ultrasonic enhancement of transdermal insulin delivery.


Blood Glucose Level Hydrophone Insulin Delivery Acoustic Intensity Normalize Blood Glucose Level 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin Snyder
    • 1
    • 2
  • Seungjun Lee
    • 1
  • Nadine Barrie Smith
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Robert E. Newnham
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BioengineeringThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  2. 2.Material Research LaboratoryThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  3. 3.Graduate Program in AcousticsThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

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