Skip to main content

Role of ion depletion in the electrophoretic deposition of alumina powder from ethanol with increasing quantities of HCl

Abstract

Under certain conditions of conductivity and at constant current, electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of alumina powder from an acidic suspension is accompanied by an anomalous voltage rise across the deposited particulate layer. This voltage rise, which is much greater than can be accounted for by the blocking of the electrode by non-conducting particles, is the signal of the formation of a very uniform, dense alumina deposition layer. To determine the conditions necessary to induce this effect and discover its origins, a series of systematic EPD trials with increasing quantities of HCL is comprehensively examined. It is shown that both of these effects can be accounted for by the formation of an ion depleted conduction layer in the solvent at the deposition electrode, which is marked by extremely high voltage gradients. The resulting electrophoretic force on particles in this layer is several orders of magnitude higher than the force on particles in the rest of the system and consolidates the particles to form the observed densely compacted layer. This high voltage gradient layer also results in a significant self-leveling effect for deposition thickness. A complete description of the various types of deposition observed in this series of trials is then given in which EPD is treated as a series of three steps: accumulation, deposition, and consolidation. This description identifies the origin of several effects seen during EPD and is intended to help the reader identify the conditions necessary to induce ion depletion enhanced, automatic leveling electrophoretic deposition.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

Abbreviations

DEBL:

Diffuse electrostatic boundary layer, (double layer)

EPD:

Electrophoretic Deposition

EHD:

Electrohydrodynamic

References

  1. 1.

    Sarkar P, Huang X, Nicholson PS (1993) Ceram Eng Sci Proc 14:707

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Sarkar P, Nicholson PS (1996) 62:271

  3. 3.

    Van Tassel JJ, Randall CA (2001) J Colloid Interface Sci 241:302

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Levich VG (1962) Physicochemical hydrodynamics. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ

  5. 5.

    Chazviel J-N (1990) Phys Rev A 42(12):7355

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Chu KT, Bazant MJ (2005) SIAM J Appl Math 65(5):1485

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Loeb AL, Th J, Overbeek G, Wiersma PH (1961) The electrical double layer around a spherical colloidal particle. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Israelachvilli JN (1992) Intermolecular and surface forces. Academic Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Russel WB, Saville DA, Schowalter WR (1989) Colloidal dispersions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    De D, Nicholson PS (1999) J Am Ceram Soc 82(11):3031

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Léger C, Elezgaray J, Argoul F (2000) Electroanal Chem 486:204

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Van Tassel J, Randall CA (2006) In: Boccaccini AR, Van der Biest O, Clasen R (eds) Electrophoretic deposition: fundamentals and applications. Trans Tech Publications, pp 167–174

  13. 13.

    Hamaker HC, Verwey EJW (1940) Trans Faraday Soc 36:180

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Rice CL, Whitehead R (1965) J Phys Chem 69(11):4017

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Tavares MFM, McGuffin VL (1995) Anal Chem 67:3687

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Wan Q-H (1997) Anal Chem 69:361

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was funded by the Penn State Center for Dielectric Studies, the Penn State Particulate Materials Center, and the Intel Corporation.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jonathan J. Van Tassel.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Van Tassel, J.J., Randall, C.A. Role of ion depletion in the electrophoretic deposition of alumina powder from ethanol with increasing quantities of HCl. J Mater Sci 41, 8031–8046 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-006-0770-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Alumina Particle
  • Voltage Gradient
  • Voltage Rise
  • Gradient Layer
  • Deposition Substrate