Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 42, Issue 13, pp 4824–4831 | Cite as

Piezoelectric hydrophones from optimal designs, Part I: fabrication

  • Christopher J. Reilly
  • John W. HalloranEmail author
  • Emilio C. N. Silva


Complex three-dimensional optimal designs for improved piezoelectric hydrophones were being realized in lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric ceramics using an indirect solid freeform fabrication technique employing lost molds to define internal void spaces. Lost molds were fabricated by wax-based ink jet deposition, and replicated in PZT ceramic using acrylate suspension polymerization. The physical size of the object is determined by the finest feature present in the design, and by the resolution of the ink jet device. Arrays with 125 repeat units were fabricated with a fidelity of 0.9% in placement of features. The Indirect Solid Freeform Fabrication technique is described in detail.


Hydrophone Acrylate Monomer Monomer Solution Decalin Solid Freeform Fabrication 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This research was supported by the US National Science Foundation, under Grant 9972620.


  1. 1.
    Bendsøe MP, Kikuchi N (1988) Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 71:197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Silva ECN (1998) Design of piezocomposite materials and piezoelectric transducers using topology optimization. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Michigan, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied MechanicsGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Silva ECN, Fonseca JSO, Kikuchi N (1998) Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 159:49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Silva ECN, Fonseca JSO, Kikuchi N (1997) Comput Mech 19(5):397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sigmund O, Torquato S, Aksay IA (1998) J Mater Res 13(4):1038Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Crumm T, Halloran JW, Silva ECN, Montero de Espinosa F (2006) J Mater Sci, doi:10.1007/s10853-006-1478-5Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Xu Y (1991) Ferroelectric materials and their applications. North Holland-Elsevier Science, New York Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jaffe W, Cooke R, Jaffe H (1971) Piezoelectric ceramics. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Reilly CJ (2001) Novel electroactive ceramic architectures by indirect solid freeform fabrication. PhD Thesis, University of MichiganGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Beaman JJ, Barlow JW et al (eds) (1997) Solid freeform fabrication: a new direction in manufacturing. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston MAGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Miao W (2000) Fabrication of lead zirconate titanate actuator by suspension pollymerization casting. Ph.D. Thesis, University of MichiganGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bergstrom L (1994) In: Pugh RJ, Bergstrom L (eds) Surface and colloid chemistry in advanced ceramic processing. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 193–239Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Krieger IM, Dougherty TJ (1959) Transac Soc Reheol 3:137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Barnes H, Hutton J, Walters K (1989) In: Barnes H (ed) An introduction to rheology. Elsevier, New York, pp 115–139Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chu T-M, Halloran JW (2000) J Am Ceramic Soc 83(9):2189CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher J. Reilly
    • 1
  • John W. Halloran
    • 1
    Email author
  • Emilio C. N. Silva
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringUniversity Of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Department of Mechatronics and Mechanical Systems Engineering, Escola PolitécnicaUniversity of São PauloSao PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations