Journal of Logic, Language and Information

, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 91–115 | Cite as

Reference and perspective in intuitionistic logics

Original Paper


What an intuitionist may refer to with respect to a given epistemic state depends not only on that epistemic state itself but on whether it is viewed concurrently from within, in the hindsight of some later state, or ideally from a standpoint “beyond” all epistemic states (though the latter perspective is no longer strictly intuitionistic). Each of these three perspectives has a different—and, in the last two cases, a novel—logic and semantics. This paper explains these logics and their semantics and provides soundness and completeness proofs. It provides, moreover, a critique of some common versions of Kripke semantics for intuitionistic logic and suggests ways of modifying them to take account of the perspective-relativity of reference.


Intuitionistic logic Intuitionism Constructivism Reference Kripke semantics 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Philosophy DepartmentUniversity of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA

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