Electrophysiological differences between typical and dense benign prostatic hyperplasia tissues retrieved after holmium laser enucleation of the prostate

  • Hyeon Woo Kim
  • Joho Yun
  • Young Keum Kim
  • Dong Gil Shin
  • Jong-Hyun LeeEmail author
  • Jeong Zoo LeeEmail author
Original Article



Electrophysiological differences between typical and dense (beach ball) benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) tissues were investigated using a needle device with a micro-electrical impedance spectroscopy (µEIS) sensor.

Materials and methods

Ten pieces of typical BPH tissues and beach balls were collected from ten patients during the morcellation procedure of Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate. Their impedance was measured at a frequency range from 100 to 1 MHz using the µEIS-on-a-needle (µEoN). The impedance data (magnitude) were compared between the two tissue types and their correlation with the pathologic features was investigated.


The mean magnitude of the beach balls tended to be larger than that of the typical BPH tissues at all investigated frequencies. Notably, significantly larger magnitudes were observed in the beach balls at the frequencies higher than 15.9 kHz (p ≤ 0.02). The variation of mean log-transformed magnitudes by frequency was significantly different between both tissue types (p < 0.001). The pathologic features of the beach balls presented pure stromal nodules of nodular hyperplasia, while the typical BPH tissues presented mixed epithelial-stromal nodules.


The impedance difference between typical BPH tissues and beach balls is assumed to be attributed to the amount of their stromal content.


Electrical impedance Benign prostatic hyperplasia Micro-electrical-mechanical systems Histology 



This work was supported by the “Biomedical Integrated Technology Research” Project through a grant provided by GIST in 2017.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of UrologyPusan National University HospitalBusanSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical Science and EngineeringGwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST)GwangjuSouth Korea
  3. 3.Department of PathologyPusan National University HospitalBusanSouth Korea
  4. 4.Department of Biomedical Science and Engineering, MEMS and Nano Systems Lab. #317Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST)GwangjuSouth Korea

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