Intermolecular interactions and binding mechanism of inclusion complexation between sulfonate calix[n]arenes and ethidium bromide

Original Article


In this work, the interactions between ethidium bromide (ET) and water-soluble sulfonate calix[n]arenes (n: 4, 6, and 8) were investigated by NMR, FT-IR, and fluorescence spectroscopic methods. The aim was to evaluate both the stoichiometry and the mechanism of the possible complex structure between sulfonate calix[n]arenes and ET. The spectroscopic data revealed that a 1:1 binding mode between calixarene and ET was occurred. Furthermore, thermodynamic parameters and fluorescence titration experiments were studied at different temperatures to determine both the quenching mechanism and the type of intermolecular forces in complex formation. Host–guest complexation of sulfonate calix[n]arenes and ET could be used to overcome some adverse effects related to the using of ethidium bromide during biological applications as a DNA marker treatment.


Ethidium bromide Calixarene Inclusion complexation Fluorescence DNA marker 


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of EngineeringKaramanoglu Mehmetbey UniversityKaramanTurkey

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