An ever-increasing number of autonomous vehicles use bandwidth-greedy sensors such as cameras and LiDARs to sense and act to the world around us. Unfortunately, signal transmission in vehicles is vulnerable to passive and active cyber-physical attacks that may result in loss of intellectual property, or worse yet, the loss of control of a vehicle, potentially causing great harm. Therefore, it is important to investigate efficient cryptographic methods to secure signal transmission in such vehicles against outside threats. This study is motivated by the observation that previous publications have suggested legacy algorithms, which are either inefficient or insecure for vision-based signals. We show how stream ciphers and authenticated encryption can be applied to transfer sensor data securely and efficiently between computing devices suitable for distributed guidance, navigation, and control systems. We provide an efficient and flexible pipeline of cryptographic operations on image and point cloud data in the Robot Operating System (ROS). We also demonstrate how image data can be compressed to reduce the amount of data to be encrypted, transmitted, and decrypted. Experiments on embedded computers verify that modern software cryptographic algorithms perform very well on large sensor data. Hence, the introduction of such algorithms should enhance security without significantly compromising the overall performance.
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This work was supported by the Norwegian Research Council (project no. 223254) through the NTNU Center of Autonomous Marine Operations and Systems (AMOS) at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
Open access funding provided by NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology (incl St. Olavs Hospital - Trondheim University Hospital). This work was funded by the Norwegian Research Council (project no. 223254) through the NTNU Center of Autonomous Marine Operations and Systems (AMOS) at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
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The data that support the findings of this study are openly available in the public Github repository “Crypto ROS: Secure and Efficient Transmission of Vision-Based Feedback Control Signals” .
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Volden, Ø., Solnør, P., Petrovic, S. et al. Secure and Efficient Transmission of Vision-Based Feedback Control Signals. J Intell Robot Syst 103, 26 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10846-021-01472-5