Human-and-Humanoid Postures Under External Disturbances: Modeling, Simulation, and Robustness. Part 1: Modeling

Abstract

It is a well-known fact that the growth of technology has radically changed our approach to biosciences and medicine. What is interesting is that in the last decade we have witnessed a reverse influence—a trend towards “biologically inspired” solutions to technical problems. This leads to a true symbiosis between bio and technical sciences. A good example is the intersection and overlapping of three distinct fields: sports, medicine, and robotics. This paper intends to apply sophisticated methods developed for mathematical modeling of humanoid robots in real human motions, particularly in posture stabilization and selection of appropriate postures for different situation in sports and every day life. A general simulation system is realized: following a deductive principle, the algorithm considers particular human/humanoid motions (like those occurring in different sports) as being just special cases of a general motion and impact theory. Simulation includes the interaction with the environment. Simulating a human/humanoid dynamics in a given task, all relevant characteristics could be found: trajectories, velocities and accelerations, loads of joints, power requirements, energy consumption, contact forces including ground reactions, impact effects, etc. Simulation is used in solving a problem that is important for both humans and humanoid robots, namely, the behavior of a posture (keeping stability or collapsing) when subject to different disturbances. Although “posture” is mainly a static term, maintaining its balance in the presence of disturbances is a truly dynamic problem. Typical postures from every day life and sports are considered, such as: upright standing, squat (and partial squat), and three karate postures. Two sorts of disturbances are applied to eventually, compromise the posture: external impulse and permanent external force. This paper does not aim to suggest some new control strategy but to develop the dynamic model and simulation algorithm, and apply them to compare the robustness of different postures to external disturbances.

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Correspondence to Veljko Potkonjak.

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Potkonjak, V., Tzafestas, S., Vukobratovic, M. et al. Human-and-Humanoid Postures Under External Disturbances: Modeling, Simulation, and Robustness. Part 1: Modeling. J Intell Robot Syst 63, 191–210 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10846-010-9517-5

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Keywords

  • Posture
  • Robustness
  • Disturbance
  • Dynamic model
  • Simulation