Skip to main content
Log in

Intelligent Control of High-Speed Turning in a Quadruped

  • Published:
Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Understanding and implementing the control mechanisms that animals use to robustly negotiate a variety of terrains at high speed remains an unsolved problem. Previous research has resulted in control of quadruped running over a range of low speeds or narrowly around a single high speed. Control over a range of both low and high speeds is difficult because a quadruped system is significantly more responsive at high speeds than at low speeds, and because the proportional-derivative style controllers used by many of the previous researchers are only effective locally around the single speed and turning rate at which the controller was tuned. This work presents a fuzzy control strategy that manages the complex coupling between the multiple system inputs and outputs to successfully execute high-speed turns over a range of speeds and turning rates. The resulting control system stabilizes a 3D quadruped trot up to 4 m/s and turning up to 30 deg/s, on a quadruped system with articulated legs and practical leg mass properties in a simulation environment with realistic friction coefficients and system losses.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Hoyt, D.F., Taylor, C.R.: Gait and the energetics of locomotion in horses. Nature 292, 239–240 (1981)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Waldron, K.J., Nanua, P.: Energy comparison between trot, bound, and gallop using a simple model. J. Biomech. Eng. 117(4), 466–473 (1995)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Raibert, M.H.: Legged Robots that Balance. MIT, Cambridge (1986)

    Google Scholar 

  4. Raibert, M.H.: Trotting, pacing, and bounding by a quadruped robot. J. Biomech. 23(suppl. 1), 79–98 (1990)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Heglund, N.C., Taylor, C.R.: Speed, stride frequency and energy cost per stride: How do they change with body size and gait? J. Exp. Biol. 138, 301–318 (1988)

    Google Scholar 

  6. Buehler, M., Playter, R., Raibert, M.: Robots step outside. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Adaptive Motion in Animals and Machines (AMAM), Ilmenau (2005)

  7. Poulakakis, I., Smith, J.A., Buehler, M.: On the dynamics of bounding and extensions towards the half-bound and the gallop gaits. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Adaptive Motion of Animals and Machines, Kyoto (2003)

  8. Krasny, D.P., Orin, D.E.: A 3D galloping quadruped robot. In: 8th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots (CLAWAR 2005), pp. 467–474. London (2005)

  9. Koditschek, D.E., Buehler, M.: Analysis of a simplified hopping robot. Int. J. Rob. Res. 10, 587–605 (1991)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Fedak, M.A., Heglund, N.C., Taylor, C.R.: Energetics and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion II: kinetic energy changes of the limbs and body as a function of speed and body size in birds and mammals. J. Exp. Biol. 79, 23–40 (1982)

    Google Scholar 

  11. Grand, T.I.: Body weight: its relation to tissue composition, segment distribution, and motor function. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 47, 211–440 (1977)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Schmiedeler, J.P., Siston, R., Waldron, K.: The significance of leg mass in modeling quadrupedal running gaits. In: Bianchi, E.G., Guinot, J.C., Rzymkowski, C. (eds.) ROMANSY 14: Theory and Practice of Robots and Manipulators, pp. 481–488. Springer, New York (2002)

    Google Scholar 

  13. Palmer III, L.R., Orin, D.E.: Control of a 3D quadruped trot. In: 8th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots, pp. 165–172, London (2005)

  14. Tsujita, K., Toui, H., Tsuchiya, K.: Dynamic turning control of a quadruped locomotion robot using oscillators. Adv. Robot. 19, 1115–1133 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Fukuoka, Y., Kimura, H., Cohen, A.: Adaptive dynamic walking of a quadruped robot on irregular terrain based on biological concepts. Int. J. Rob. Res. 22(3), 187–202 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Villard, C., Gorce, P., Fontaine, J.-G.: Study of a distributed control architecture for a quadruped robot. J. Intell. Robot. Syst. 11, 269–291 (1995)

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  17. Marhefka, D.W., Orin, D.E., Schmiedeler, J.P., Waldron, K.J.: Intelligent control of quadruped gallops. IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron. 8, 446–456 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Herr, H.M., McMahon, T.A.: A trotting horse model. Int. J. Rob. Res. 19, 566–581 (2000)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Palmer, L.R., Orin, D.E., Marhefka, D.W., Schmiedeler, J.P., Waldron, K.J.: Intelligent control of an experimental articulated leg for a galloping machine. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 3821–3827, Taipei (2003)

  20. Hornby, G., Fujita, M., Takamura, S., Yamamoto, T., Hanagata, O.: Autonomous evolution of gaits with the Sony quadruped robot. In: Banzhaf, W., Daida, J., Eiben, A.E., Garzon, M.H., Honavar, V., Jakiela, M., Smith, R.E. (eds.) Proceedings of the 1999 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, pp. 1297–1304. Morgan Kauffmann, San Francisco (1999)

    Google Scholar 

  21. Rodenbaugh, S.J.: RobotBuilder: a graphical software tool for the rapid development of robotic dynamic simulations. Master’s thesis, The Ohio State University, Columbus (2003)

  22. McMillan, S., Orin, D.E., McGhee, R.B.: DynaMechs: an object oriented software package for efficient dynamic simulation of underwater robotic vehicles. In: Yuh, J. (ed.) Underwater Robotic Vehicles: Design and Control, pp. 73–98. TSI, Albuquerque (1995)

    Google Scholar 

  23. Lee, D.V., Bertram, J.E.A., Todhunter, R.J.: Acceleration and balance in trotting dogs. J. Exp. Biol. 202, 3565–3573 (1999)

    Google Scholar 

  24. Palmer III, L.R., Orin, D.E.: 3D control of a high-speed quadruped trot. Ind. Rob. 33(4), 298–302 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Palmer III, L.R.: Intelligent Control and Force Redistribution for a High-Speed Quadruped Trot. Ph.D. thesis, The Ohio State University (2007)

  26. Cavagna, G.A., Heglund, N.C., Taylor, C.R.: Mechanical work in terrestrial locomotion: two basic mechanisms for minimizing energy expenditure. Am. J. Physiol. 233(5), R243–R261 (1977)

    Google Scholar 

  27. Biewener, A.A.: Animal Locomotion. Oxford University Press, New York (2003)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Luther R. Palmer III.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Palmer, L.R., Orin, D.E. Intelligent Control of High-Speed Turning in a Quadruped. J Intell Robot Syst 58, 47–68 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10846-009-9345-7

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10846-009-9345-7

Keywords

Navigation