VREDI: virtual representation for a digital twin application in a work-center-level asset administration shell


The asset administration shell (AAS) has a virtual representation as an asset description and technical functionality as a smart manufacturing service. A digital twin (DT) is an advanced virtual factory technology that has simulation as its core technical functionality, which it performs in the type and instance stages of the physical asset. For providing an efficient information object to the DT application, this paper proposes Virtual REpresentation for a DIgital twin application (VREDI): an asset description for the operation procedures of a work-center-level DT application. For the successful application of DT as a smart factory technology, VREDI is designed to meet four core technical requirements—DT definition, AAS property inheritance, improving the existing asset description, and supporting DT-based technical functionalities. Based on the analysis of the technical requirements, the elements of VREDI are derived and the reference relationships between them are designed. It is then possible to provide the required technical functionality using the VREDI header, and a detailed P4R structure and elements of the body are defined. VREDI is applied to the concept to support the main properties of the DT. It is designed to inherit the AAS properties for efficient information management and interoperability. The application of advanced concepts such as “type and instance” and supporting vertical integration and horizontal coordination overcomes the limitations of the existing asset descriptions. Additionally, VREDI designates elements for supporting six DT-based technical functionalities in the type and instance stages of the physical work center.

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Asset administration shell


Application programming interface


Bill of materials


Core manufacturing simulation data


Configuration data library


Computerized numerical control


Cyber physical production system


Cyber physical system


Commercial off-the-shelf simulation package interoperability


Discrete event simulation


Data description language


Digital twin


Industrie 4.0


Information and communication technology




Industrial internet of things


Internet of things


Microsoft foundation class


Material handling conveyor


Material handling equipment


Material handling robots


Material handling vehicle


Modular manufacturing system


Micro smart factory


Mean time between failures


Mean time to repair


Neutral simulation schema


Product, process, plan, plant, and resource


Programmable logic controller


Reference architectural model industrie


Representational state transfer


Rule-based reasoning


Service-oriented architecture


Simple object access protocol


Standard for the exchange of product


Unified modeling language


Virtual representation for a digital twin application


Windows communication foundation


Work in process


Extensible markup language


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This work was supported by the IT R&D Program of MOTIE/KEIT (10052972, Development of the Reconfigurable Manufacturing Core Technology Based on the Flexible Assembly and ICT Converged Smart Systems) and the WC300 Project (S2482274, Development of Multi-vehicle Flexible Manufacturing Platform Technology for Future Smart Automotive Body Production) funded by the Ministry of SMEs and Startups.

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Park, K.T., Yang, J. & Noh, S.D. VREDI: virtual representation for a digital twin application in a work-center-level asset administration shell. J Intell Manuf 32, 501–544 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10845-020-01586-x

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  • Asset description
  • Digital twin
  • Digital-twin-based technical functionality
  • Service-oriented architecture
  • Virtual representation
  • Work-center-level asset administration shell