Automatic text summarization extracts important information from texts and presents the information in the form of a summary. Abstractive summarization approaches progressed significantly by switching to deep neural networks, but results are not yet satisfactory, especially for languages where large training sets do not exist. In several natural language processing tasks, a cross-lingual model transfer is successfully applied in less-resource languages. For summarization, the cross-lingual model transfer was not attempted due to a non-reusable decoder side of neural models that cannot correct target language generation. In our work, we use a pre-trained English summarization model based on deep neural networks and sequence-to-sequence architecture to summarize Slovene news articles. We address the problem of inadequate decoder by using an additional language model for the evaluation of the generated text in target language. We test several cross-lingual summarization models with different amounts of target data for fine-tuning. We assess the models with automatic evaluation measures and conduct a small-scale human evaluation. Automatic evaluation shows that the summaries of our best cross-lingual model are useful and of quality similar to the model trained only in the target language. Human evaluation shows that our best model generates summaries with high accuracy and acceptable readability. However, similar to other abstractive models, our models are not perfect and may occasionally produce misleading or absurd content.
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Availability of data and material
The data used in the study was extracted from the Slovene Gigafida corpusFootnote 4. Restrictions apply to the availability of these data. Due to that, the extracted summarization dataset is available upon an email request to the authors.
The source code of our summarization system is freely available at https://github.com/azagsam/cross-lingual-summarization.
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The research was supported by the Slovene Research Agency through research core funding no. P6-0411 and project no. J6-2581. The research was financially supported by European social fund and Republic of Slovenia, Ministry of Education, Science and Sport through projects Quality of Slovene textbooks (KaUč) and Ministry of Culture of Republic of Slovenia through project Development of Slovene in Digital Environment (RSDO). This paper is supported by European Union’s Horizon 2020 Programme project EMBEDDIA (Cross-Lingual Embeddings for Less-Represented Languages in European News Media, grant no. 825153).
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Žagar, A., Robnik-Šikonja, M. Cross-lingual transfer of abstractive summarizer to less-resource language. J Intell Inf Syst (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10844-021-00663-8
- Automatic summarization
- Text generation
- Deep neural networks
- Language models
- Cross-lingual embeddings
- Abstractive summarization