Influence of habitat and landscape on butterfly diversity of semi-natural meadows within forest-dominated landscapes
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This study investigates how butterfly communities are influenced by habitat and landscape factors in forest-dominated landscapes. The abundance and species richness of butterflies were determined in 22 semi-natural meadows located in north-eastern Estonia. A correlation analysis, partial least squares analysis and stepwise forward-selection multiple regression analysis were applied for habitat parameters and the surrounding landscape at four spatial scales, i.e., 250, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 m radius. We found a positive correlation between the proportion of forest and total butterfly species richness at a 250 m radius scale. Contrary to expectation, the amount of meadow area in the surrounding landscape negatively influenced butterfly species richness and abundance. Our results emphasise the importance of both the surrounding landscape and habitat characteristics for butterfly species richness. Because butterfly communities are composed of individual species with different habitat requirements, diverse habitats and landscape configurations should be applied in insect conservation and management.
KeywordsLepidoptera Species richness Patch quality Land cover types Landscape indices Heterogeneity
This research was funded by targeted financing from the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (SF1090050s07), by an applied research project of the Estonian Ministry of Agriculture (T8014PKPK) and by the EU Regional Development Foundation, Environmental Conservation and Environmental Technology R&D Programme Project EDULOOD (3.2.0802.11-0043). We would like to thank anonymous reviewers for their useful comments that greatly improved the manuscript.
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