Conservation in Hine’s sight: the conservation genetics of the federally endangered Hine’s emerald dragonfly, Somatochlora hineana
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Hine’s emerald dragonfly (Somatochlora hineana) is distributed in discrete fen and wet meadow habitats over its range from Ontario, Canada, to Missouri, USA. Habitat destruction in the vicinity of Chicago, IL, and other areas lead to its designation as an US federal endangered species in 1995. Our main goal was to delineate the population genetic structure of the species within the northern recovery unit centered on the Door Peninsula in Wisconsin and the southern recovery unit in the Des Plaines River Valley near Chicago, IL. Sites on the Door Peninsula, WI, are in a matrix of agricultural development and second-growth forest and were used as a best available approximation of a pristine system for the dragonfly. We nondestructively sampled 557 adults and larvae from 16 sites in Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin from 2008 through 2011 and used ten microsatellite markers to estimate levels of genetic variability, and genetic structure. Mean allelic richness across all sites and years was 5.03 (±0.64) and expected heterozygosity was 0.52 (±0.032). Northern and southern recovery units as designated in the original recovery plan were genetically distinct. We delineated two genetic populations in the northern unit and three within the southern including two disjunct sites.
KeywordsMicrosatellite Odonata Population structure Population genetics
We thank the many Soluk lab summer research technicians, L. Brotkowski, A. Monroe, and M. Koster for help obtaining field specimens. Funding was provided by the Illinois State Toll Highway Authority and we thank A. La Porte for assistance as our point of contact with that agency. Additional funding was provided by the Illinois Department of Natural Resources and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. None of our funding sources had any role in study design, execution of the work or writing of the manuscript. In-kind support was provided by The Nature Conservancy Wisconsin Chapter, the DuPage County Forest Preserve District, and the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Field Station. Funding for the genetic analyzer was provided by the National Science Foundation grant #MRI-0923419. We thank L. Riley and J. Filler for assistance in the lab, J. Brown for creating the map, and two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on earlier versions of this manuscript. All specimens were obtained under permits #TE805269-11 and #TE805269-13 issued by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as well as all required state and local permits.
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