Journal of Insect Conservation

, Volume 16, Issue 6, pp 883–897 | Cite as

Effects of habitat edges and trampling on the distribution of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in urban forests

  • D. Johan Kotze
  • Susanna Lehvävirta
  • Matti Koivula
  • Robert B. O’Hara
  • John R. Spence
ORIGINAL PAPER

Abstract

Urban forest patches are generally small with highly contrasting edges bordering non-forest habitat, landscape features that increase with urbanisation. These forest patches are also subject to high human foot traffic resulting in trampling and other user disturbances that affect their quality as habitat for invertebrates. We studied the effects of these factors on carabid beetles in urban forests in the cities of Helsinki (Finland) and Edmonton (Canada). In both cities, the structure of carabid assemblages was affected by trampling intensity and distance to the forest edge. Moderate intensity of trail use was associated with increased beetle captures, especially in Edmonton. The effects on individual species were apparent in Edmonton but harder to demonstrate in Helsinki where forest specialist species may have been largely extirpated already. We suggest that these differences result because there has been a long history of fragmentation of urban forest patches in Helsinki, species loss from such patches is gradual, and understorey vegetation structure constrains human foot traffic in forest patches more in Edmonton than it does in Helsinki.

Keywords

City Fragmentation Recreational Urban woodlands Wear 

Supplementary material

10841_2012_9475_MOESM1_ESM.docx (14 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 13 kb)
10841_2012_9475_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (151 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 150 kb)
10841_2012_9475_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (153 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (PDF 153 kb)
10841_2012_9475_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (35 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (PDF 35 kb)
10841_2012_9475_MOESM5_ESM.pdf (31 kb)
Supplementary material 5 (PDF 31 kb)

References

  1. Abensperg-Traun M, Smith GT, Arnold GW, Steven DE (1996) The effects of habitat fragmentation and livestock-grazing on animal communities in remnants of gimlet Eucalyptus salubris woodland in the Western Australian wheatbelt. I. Arthropods. J Anim Ecol 33:1281–1301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnberger A (2006) Recreation use of urban forests: an inter-area comparison. Urban For Urban Green 4:135–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bedford SE, Usher MB (1994) Distribution of arthropod species across the margins of farm woodlands. Agr Ecosyst Environ 48:295–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bolger DT, Suarez AV, Crooks KR, Morrison SA, Case TJ (2000) Arthropods in urban habitat fragments in southern California: area, age and edge effects. Ecol Appl 10:1230–1248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bourassa S, Spence JR, Hartley DJ, Lee S-I (2011) Wing-dimorphism and expansion of Pterostichus melanarius Ill. Populations at small and large scales in central Alberta, Canada. In: Erwin TL (ed) Proceedings of a symposium honoring the careers of Ross and Joyce Bell and their contributions to scientific work, Burlington, VT, pp 12–15 June 2010. ZooKeys 147:545–558Google Scholar
  6. Cajander AK (1926) The theory of forest types. Acta For Fenn 29:1–108Google Scholar
  7. Carreiro MM, Song Y-C, Wu J (2008) Ecology, planning, and management of urban forests: international perspectives. Springer, Berlin, p 467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen J, Franklin JF, Spies TA (1993) Contrasting microclimates among clearcut, edge and interior of old-growth Douglas-fir forest. Agric For Meteorol 63:219–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cole LJ, Pollock ML, Robertson D, Holland JP, McCracken DI (2006) Carabid (Coleoptera) assemblages in the Scottish uplands: the influence of sheep grazing on ecological structure. Entomol Fennica 17:229–240Google Scholar
  10. Davies-Colley RJ, Payne GW, Elswijk M (2000) Microclimate gradients across a forest edge. New Zeal J Ecol 24:111–121Google Scholar
  11. Dennis JG, Ruggiero MA (1996) Biodiversity inventory: building an inventory at scales from local to global. In: Szaro RC, Johnston DW (eds) Biodiversity in managed landscapes. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 149–156Google Scholar
  12. Digweed CS, Currie CR, Cárcamo HA, Spence JR (1995) Digging out the “digging-in effect” of pitfall traps: influences of depletion and distribution on catches of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Pedobiologia 39:561–576Google Scholar
  13. Ewers RM, Didham RK (2006) Confounding factors in the detection of species responses to habitat fragmentation. Biol Rev 81:117–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Florgård C (2000) Long-term changes in indigenous vegetation preserved in urban areas. Landsc Urban Plan 52:101–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fujita A, Maeto K, Kagawa Y, Ito N (2008) Effects of forest fragmentation on species richness and composition of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Brachinidae) in urban landscapes. Entomol Sci 11:39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gaublomme E, Hendrickx F, Dhuyvetter H, Desender K (2008) The effects of forest patch size and matrix type on changes in carabid beetle assemblages in an urbanized landscape. Biol Conserv 141:2585–2596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Godefroid S, Koedam N (2004) The impact of forest paths upon adjacent vegetation: effects of the path surfacing material on the species composition and soil compaction. Biol Conserv 119:405–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Grandchamp A-C, Nimelä J, Kotze J (2000) The effects of trampling on assemblages of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in urban forests in Helsinki, Finland. Urban Ecosyst 4:321–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Halme E, Niemelä J (1993) Carabid beetles in fragments of coniferous forest. Ann Zool Fennici 30:17–30Google Scholar
  20. Hamberg L, Lehvävirta S, Malmivaara-Lämsä M, Rita H, Kotze DJ (2008) The effects of habitat edges and trampling on understorey vegetation in urban forests in Helsinki, Finland. Appl Veg Sci 11:81–96Google Scholar
  21. Hamberg L, Malmivaara-Lämsä M, Lehvävirta S, Kotze DJ (2009) The effects of soil fertility on the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) in urban forests. Plant Ecol 204:21–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Heliölä J, Koivula M, Niemelä J (2001) Distribution of carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) across a Boreal forest-clearcut ecotone. Conserv Biol 15:370–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hickerson CAM, Anthony CD, Walton BM (2005) Edge effects and intraguild predation in native and introduced centipedes: evidence from the field and from laboratory experiments. Oecologia 146:110–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hylander K (2005) Aspect modifies the magnitude of edge effects on bryophyte growth in boreal forests. J Anim Ecol 42:518–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ikeda H (2003) Testing the intermediate disturbance hypothesis on species diversity in herbaceous plant communities along a human trampling gradient using a 4-year experiment in an old-field. Ecol Res 18:185–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Isaksson W (2004) The effects of edges and trampling intensity on vegetation in urban forests east of Edmonton in Alberta, Canada. Honours Thesis. Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, pp 84Google Scholar
  27. Koivula M (2002) Alternative harvesting methods and boreal carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae). Forest Ecol Man 167:103–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Koivula MJ, Vermeulen HJW (2005) Highways and forest fragmentation—effects on carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae). Landsc Ecol 20:911–926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Koivula M, Punttila P, Haila Y, Niemelä J (1999) Leaf litter and small-scale distribution of carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in the boreal forest. Ecography 22:424–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Koivula M, Hyyryläinen V, Soininen E (2004) Carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) at forest-farmland edges in southern Finland. J Insect Conserv 8:297–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kotze DJ, Samways MJ (2001) No general edge effects for invertebrates at Afromontane forest/grassland ecotones. Biodivers Conserv 10:443–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kowarik I (2011) Novel urban ecosystems, biodiversity, and conservation. Environ Pollut 159:1974–1983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kupfer JA, Malanson GP, Franklin SB (2006) Not seeing the ocean for the islands: the mediating influence of matrix-based processes on forest fragmentation effects. Global Ecol Biogeogr 15:8–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kuusipalo J (1996) Suomen metsätyypit [Forest site types of Finland]. Kirjayhtymä, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  35. Laurance WF (1997) Hyper-disturbed parks: edge effects and the ecology of isolated rainforest reserves in tropical Australia. In: Laurance WF, Bierregaard RO Jr. (eds) Tropical forest remnants. Ecology, management and conservation of fragmented communities. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 71–83Google Scholar
  36. Lehvävirta S (1999) Structural elements as barriers against wear in urban woodlands. Urban Ecosyst 3:45–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lehvävirta S, Kotze DJ (2009) How to conduct comparative urban ecological research. In: McDonnell MJ, Hahs AK, Breuste JH (eds) Ecology of cities and towns: a comparative approach. Cambridge University Press, UK, pp 530–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lehvävirta S, Kotze DJ, Niemelä J, Mäntysaari M, O’Hara B (2006) Effects of fragmentation and trampling on carabid beetle assemblages in urban woodlands in Helsinki, Finland. Urban Ecosyst 9:13–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Liddle M (1997) Recreation ecology. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  40. Lindgren F, Rue H (2008) On the second-order random walk model for irregular locations. Scand J Stat 35:691–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lindroth CH (1961–1969) The Ground-beetles of Canada and Alaska. Opuscula Entomologica Suppl. 20, 24, 29, 33–35. Entomologiska Sällskapet, Lund, Sweden, pp XLX + 1192Google Scholar
  42. Lindroth CH (1985) The Carabidae (Coleoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Part I. Scandinavian Science Press, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  43. Lindroth CH (1986) The Carabidae (Coleoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Part II. Scandinavian Science Press, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  44. Littlemore J, Barker S (2001) The ecological response of forest ground flora and soils to experimental trampling in British urban woodlands. Urban Ecosyst 5:257–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. López-Barrera F, Newton A, Manson R (2005) Edge effects in a tropical montane forest mosaic: experimental tests of post-dispersal acorn removal. Ecol Res 20:31–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lövei GL, Magura T, Tóthmérész B, Ködöböcz V (2006) The influence of matrix and edges on species richness patterns of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in habitat islands. Global Ecol Biogeogr 15:283–289Google Scholar
  47. Magura T, Tóthmérész B, Molnar T (2001) Forest edge and diversity: carabids along forest-grassland transects. Biodivers Conserv 10:287–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Magura T, Lövei GL, Tóthmérész B (2010) Does urbanization decrease diversity in ground beetle (Carabidae) assemblages? Global Ecol Biogeogr 19:16–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Malmivaara M, Löfström I, Vanha-Majamaa I (2002) Anthropogenic effects on understorey vegetation in Myrtillus type urban forests in southern Finland. Silva Fenn 36:367–381Google Scholar
  50. Malmivaara-Lämsä M, Hamberg L, Haapamäki E, Liski J, Kotze DJ, Lehvävirta S, Fritze H (2008) Edge effects and trampling in boreal urban forest fragments—impacts on the soil microbial community. Soil Biol Biochem 40:1612–1621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Matlack GR (1993) Sociological edge effects: spatial distribution of human impact in suburban forest fragments. Environ Manage 17:829–835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Matlack GR, Latvaitis JA (1999) Forest edges. In: Hunter ML Jr (ed) Maintaining biodiversity in forest ecosystems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 210–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Melis C, Buset A, Aarrestad PA, Hanssen O, Meisingset EL, Andersen R, Moksnes A, Røskaft E (2006) Impact of red deer Cervus elaphus grazing on bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus and composition of ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) assemblage. Biodiv Conserv 15:2049–2059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Melis C, Sundby M, Andersen R, Moksnes A, Pedersen B, Røskaft E (2007) The role of moose Alces alces L. in boreal forests—the effect on ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) abundance and diversity. Biodiv Conserv 16:1321–1335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Merivee E, Ploomi A, Milius M, Luik A, Heidemaa M (2005) Electrophysiological identification of antennal pH receptors in the ground beetle Pterostichus oblongopunctatus. Physiol Entomol 30:122–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Milius M, Merivee E, Williams I, Luik A, Mänd M, Must A (2006) A new method for electrophysiological identification of antennal pH receptor cells in ground beetles: the example of Pterostichus aethiops (Panzer, 1796) (Coleoptera, Carabidae). J Insect Physiol 52:960–967PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Murcia C (1995) Edge effects in fragmented forests: implications for conservation. Trends Ecol Evol 10:58–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Niemelä J (1993) Mystery of the missing species: species-abundance distribution of boreal ground-beetles. Ann Zool Fennici 30:169–172Google Scholar
  59. Niemelä J (2000) Is there a need for a theory of urban ecology? Urban Ecosyst 3:57–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Niemelä J, Kotze DJ (2009) Carabid beetle assemblages along urban to rural gradients: a review. Landsc Urban Plan 92:65–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Niemelä JK, Spence JR (1994) Distribution of forest dwelling carabids (Coleoptera): spatial scale and the concept of communities. Ecography 17:166–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Niemelä J, Spence JR (1999) Dynamics of local expansion by an introduced species: Pterostichus melanarius Ill. (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in Alberta, Canada. Divers Distrib 5:121–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Niemelä J, Haila Y, Halme E, Lahti T, Pajunen T, Punttila P (1988) The distribution of carabid beetles in fragments of old coniferous taiga and adjacent managed forest. Ann Zool Fennici 25:107–119Google Scholar
  64. Niemelä J, Spence JR, Spence DH (1992) Habitat associations and seasonal activity of ground-beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in central Alberta. Can Entomol 124:521–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Niemelä J, Spence JR, Langor D, Haila Y, Tukia H (1994) Logging and boreal ground-beetle assemblages on two continents: implications for conservation. In: Gaston K, Samways M, New T (eds) Perspectives in insect conservation. Intercept Publications, Andover, pp 29–50Google Scholar
  66. Niemelä J, Kotze DJ, Venn S, Penev L, Stoyanov I, Spence J, Hartley D, Montes de Oca E (2002) Carabid beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Carabidae) across urban-rural gradients: an international comparison. Landsc Ecol 17:387–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Nittérus K, Gunnarsson B (2006) Effect of microhabitat complexity on the local distribution of arthropods in clear-cuts. Environ Entomol 35:1324–1333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. O’Hara RB, Kotze DJ (2010) Do not log-transform count data. Methods Ecol Evol 1:118–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Oksanen J, Kindt R, Legendre P, O’Hara B, Simpson GL, Solymos P, Stevens MHH, Wagner H (2009) Vegan: community ecology package. R package version 1.15–3Google Scholar
  70. Paje F, Mossakowski D (1984) pH-preferences and habitat selection in carabid beetles. Oecologia 64:41–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. R Development Core Team (2009) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3-900051-07-0. http://www.R-project.org
  72. Rainio J, Niemelä J (2003) Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as bioindicators. Biodivers Conserv 12:487–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rand TA, Tylianakis JM, Tscharntke T (2006) Spillover edge effects: the dispersal of agriculturally subsidized insect natural enemies into adjacent natural habitats. Ecol Lett 9:603–614PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ries L, Sisk TD (2004) A predictive model of edge effects. Ecology 85:2917–2926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ries L, Sisk TD (2008) Butterfly edge effects are predicted by a simple model in a complex landscape. Oecologia 156:75–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ries L, Fletcher RJ Jr, Battin J, Sisk TD (2004) Ecological responses to habitat edges: mechanisms, models, and variability explained. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 35:491–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rue H, Martino S, Lindgren F (2009) INLA: functions which allow to perform a full Bayesian analysis of structured (geo-)additive models using Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation. R package version 0.1Google Scholar
  78. Sadler JP, Small EC, Fiszpan H, Telfer MG, Niemelä J (2006) Investigating environmental variation and landscape characteristics of an urban-rural gradient using woodland carabids assemblages. J Biogeogr 33:1126–1138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Schielzeth H (2010) Simple means to improve the interpretability of regression coefficients. Methods Ecol Evol 1:103–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Spence JR (1990) Success of European carabid species in Western Canada: preadaptation for synanthropy? In: Stork NE (ed) The role of ground beetles in ecological and environmental studies. Intercept Ltd., Andover, pp 129–141Google Scholar
  81. Spence JR, Langor DW, Niemelä J, Carcamo HA, Currie CR (1996) Northern forestry and carabids: the case for concern about old-growth species. Ann Zool Fennici 33:173–184Google Scholar
  82. Sroka K, Finch O-D (2006) Ground beetle diversity in ancient woodland remnants in north-western Germany (Coleoptera, Carabidae). J Insect Conserv 10:335–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Suominen O, Niemelä J, Martikainen P, Niemelä P, Kojola I (2003) Impact of reindeer grazing on ground-dwelling Carabidae and Curculionidae assemblages in Lapland. Ecography 26:503–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Taboada A, Kotze DJ, Salgado JM (2004) Carabid beetle occurrence at the edges of oak and beech forests in NW Spain. Eur J Entomol 101:555–563Google Scholar
  85. Thiele H-U (1977) Carabid beetles in their environments. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Thomas CFG, Parkinson L, Marshall EJP (1998) Isolating the components of activity-density for the carabid beetle Pterostichus melanarius in farmland. Oecologia 116:103–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Venables WN, Ripley BD (2002) Modern applied statistics with S, 4th edn. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  88. Wallin H, Ekbom BS (1988) Movements of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) inhabiting cereal fields: a field tracing study. Oecologia 77:39–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wallin H, Ekbom B (1994) Influence of hunger level and prey densities on movement patterns in three species of Pterostichus beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Popul Ecol 23:1171–1181Google Scholar
  90. White GC, Bennetts RE (1996) Analysis of frequency count data using the negative binomial distribution. Ecology 77:2549–2557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Work TT, Koivula M, Klimaszewski J, Langor D, Spence J, Sweeney J, Hébert C (2008) Evaluation of carabid beetles as indicators of forest change in Canada. Can Entomol 140:393–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Johan Kotze
    • 1
  • Susanna Lehvävirta
    • 1
    • 2
  • Matti Koivula
    • 3
  • Robert B. O’Hara
    • 4
    • 5
  • John R. Spence
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Environmental SciencesUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.Botanic Garden, Finnish Museum of Natural HistoryUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  3. 3.Finnish Forest Research InstituteVantaaFinland
  4. 4.Department of Mathematics and StatisticsUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  5. 5.Biodiversity and Climate Research CentreFrankfurt am MainGermany
  6. 6.Department of Renewable ResourcesUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations