Advertisement

Journal of Insect Conservation

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 345–354 | Cite as

Optimising coloured pan traps to survey flower visiting insects

  • Sven M. VrdoljakEmail author
  • Michael J. Samways
ORIGINAL PAPER

Abstract

Colour is an important attractant for many flower-visiting insects (anthophiles). Consequently, coloured pan trapping is an efficient technique that can be easily and cost-effectively used to quantitatively sample assemblages of anthophiles. However, colour preferences of anthophiles is an important source of bias that needs to be considered in pan trap surveys. By drawing sub samples comprised of different colour combinations from a database of pan trap surveys in the lowlands of the Cape Floristic Region, we examine the effects of colour on pan trap catches and determine which combinations of colours might provide better estimates of diversity when sampling with multi-colour sets of pan traps. Pan trap catches included the major groups of anthophiles in the region (Coleoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera), but butterflies (Lepidoptera) were strongly under-represented. Colour played an important role in determining the species richness and composition of pan trap catches, with colour sets that included high reflectance yellow and white generally having catches with the highest species richness. While all colour combinations provided reasonable estimates of proportional species richness, proportional abundance of taxa varied among different colour sets, and did not accurately reflect actual proportions of different taxa in the entire dataset. For comparative biodiversity surveys and assessments we recommend the use of high reflectance colours such as white and yellow traps, while for full inventory surveys, it may be necessary to include other colours to catch rarer species that are excluded by the high reflectance colours alone.

Keywords

Insect pollinators Colour preference Invertebrate surveys Trap bias Insect diversity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This project was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research through the BIOTA Africa project, with additional funding from the National Research Foundation of South Africa, and Stellenbosch University. The work would not have been possible without kind permission of landowners and managers who allowed access to work on their land at Elandsberg Nature Reserve, Cordoba Wine Estate, Vergelegen Estate, Porcupine Hills, HottentotsHolland Nature Reserve and Helderberg Nature Reserve. Gayle Pedersen kindly assisted in the field with pan trap surveys.

Supplementary material

10841_2011_9420_MOESM1_ESM.doc (159 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 159 kb)

References

  1. Ali MA (1993) Influence of trap colors and placement on captures of the Hairy Rose Beetle, Tropinota squalida Scop. (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae). Insect Sci Appl 14:215–219Google Scholar
  2. Anderbrant O, Löfqvist J, Jönsson J, Marling E (1989) Effects of pheromone trap type position and colour on the catch of the pine sawfly Neodiprion sertifer (Geoff.) (Hym., Diprionidae). J Appl Entomol 107:365–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Basset Y, Mavoungou JF, Mikissa JB, Missa O, Miller SE, Kitching RL, Alonso A (2004) Discriminatory power of different arthropod data sets for the biological monitoring of anthropogenic disturbance in tropical forests. Biodivers Conserv 13:709–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boiteau G (1990) Effect of trap color and size on relative efficiency of water-pan traps for sampling alate aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) on potato. J Econ Entomol 83:937–942Google Scholar
  5. Bray JR, Curtis JT (1957) An ordination of the upland forest communities of Southern Wisconsin. Ecol Monogr 27:325–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Broadbent L (1948) Aphis migration and the efficiency of the trapping method. Ann Appl Biol 35:379–394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brødsgaard HF (1989) Coloured sticky traps for Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) in glasshouses. J Appl Entomol 107:136–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Campbell JW, Hanula JL (2007) Efficiency of Malaise traps and colored pan traps for collecting flower visiting insects from three forested ecosystems. J Insect Conserv 11:399–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cane JH, Minckley RL, Kervin LJ (2000) Sampling bees (Hymenoptera: Apiformes) for pollinator community studies: pitfalls of pan-trapping. J Kansas Entomol Soc 73:225–231Google Scholar
  10. Capinera JL, Walmsley MR (1978) Visual responses of some sugarbeet insects to sticky traps and water pan traps of various colors. J Econ Entomol 71:926–927Google Scholar
  11. Cho K, Eckel CS, Walgenbach JF, Kennedy GG (2011) Comparison of colored sticky traps for monitoring thrips populations (Thysanoptera; Thripidae) in staked tomato fields. J Entomol Sci 30:176–190Google Scholar
  12. Chu CC, Pinter PJ, Henneberry TJ, Umeda K, Natwick ET, Wei YA, Reddy VR, Shrepatis M (2000) Use of CC traps with different trap base colors for silverleaf whiteflies (Homoptera : Aleyrodidae), thrips (Thysanoptera : Thripidae), and leafhoppers (Homoptera : Cicadellidae). J Econ Entomol 93:1329–1337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Clarke KR, Warwick RM (2001) Change in marine communities: an approach to statistical analysis and interpretation. 2nd edn. PRIMER-E Ltd, PlymouthGoogle Scholar
  14. Colwell RK (2009) EstimateS: Statistical estimation of species richness and shared species from samples. Version 8.0. University of Conneticut, Storrs, USAGoogle Scholar
  15. Cottrell CB (1985) The absence of coevolutionary associations with Capensis floral element plants in the larval/plant relationships of southwestern Cape butterflies. In: Vrba ES (ed) Species and speciation. Transvaal Museum, South Africa, pp 115–124Google Scholar
  16. Dafni A, Kevan PG, Husband BC (2005) Practical pollination biology. Enviroquest, OntarioGoogle Scholar
  17. Entwistle PF (1963) Some evidence for a colour sensitive phase in the flight period of Scolytidae and Platypodidae. Entomol Exp Appl 6:143–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Finch S, Skinner G (1974) Some factors affecting the efficiency of water-traps for capturing cabbage root flies. Ann Appl Biol 77:213–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Giurfa M, Vorobyev M, Kevan P, Menzel R (1996) Detection of coloured stimuli by honeybees: minimum visual angles and receptor specific contrasts. J Comp Physiol A 178:699–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gotelli NJ, Colwell RK (2001) Quantifying biodiversity: procedures and pitfalls in the measurement and comparison of species richness. Ecol Lett 4:379–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Goulson D, Cory JS (1993) Flower Constancy and learning in foraging preferences of the green-veined white butterfly Pieris napi. Ecol Entomol 18:315–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ingham DS, Samways MJ, Govender P (1998) Monitoring the brown wattle mirid, Lygidolon laevigatum Reuter (Hemiptera : Miridae). Afr Entomol 6:111–116Google Scholar
  23. Johnson SD, Midgley JF (2001) Pollination by monkey beetles (Scarabaeidae : Hopliini): do color and dark centers of flowers influence alighting behavior? Environ Entomol 30:861–868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jones FC (2008) Taxonomic sufficiency: the influence of taxonomic resolution on freshwater bioassessments using benthic macroinvertebrates. Environ Rev 16:45–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kevan PG (1983) Floral colors through the insect eye: what they are and what they mean. In: Jones CE, Little RJ (eds) Handbook of experimental pollination biology. Scientific and Academic Editions, New York, pp 3–30Google Scholar
  26. Kevan PG, Backhaus WGK (1998) Color vision: ecology and evolution in making the best of the photic environment. In: Backhaus W, Kliegl R, Werner JS (eds) Color vision : perspectives from different disciplines. Walter de Gruyter, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  27. Kevan PG, Chittka L, Dyer AG (2001) Limits to the salience of ultraviolet: lessons from colour vision in bees and birds. J Exp Biol 204:2571–2580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Kotze DJ, Samways MJ (1999) Support for the multi-taxa approach in biodiversity assessment, as shown by epigaeic invertebrates in an Afromontane forest archipelago. J Insect Conserv 3:125–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kremen C, Merenlender AM, Murphy DD (1994) Ecological monitoring: a vital need for integrated conservation and development programs in the tropics. Conserv Biol 8:388–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Laubertie EA, Wratten SD, Sedcole JR (2006) The role of odour and visual cues in the pan-trap catching of hoverflies (Diptera : Syrphidae). Ann Appl Biol 148:173–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lawton JH, Bignell DE, Bolton B, Bloemers GF, Eggleton P, Hammond PM, Hodda M, Holt RD, Larsen TB, Mawdsley NA, Stork NE, Srivastava DS, Watt AD (1998) Biodiversity inventories, indicator taxa and effects of habitat modification in tropical forest. Nature 391:72–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lehrer M, Bischof S (1995) Detection of model flowers by honeybees: the role of chromatic and achromatic contrast. Naturwissenschaften 82:145–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Leong JM, Thorp RW (1999) Colour-coded sampling: the pan trap colour preferences of oligolectic and nonoligolectic bees associated with a vernal pool plant. Ecol Entomol 24:329–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mattoni R, Longcore T, Novotny V (2000) Arthropod monitoring for fine-scale habitat analysis: a case study of the El Segundo sand dunes. Environ Manage 25:445–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McCall C, Primack RB (1992) Influence of flower characteristics, weather, time of day, and season on insect visitation rates in three plant-communities. Am J Bot 79:434–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Missa O, Basset Y, Alonso A, Miller S, Curletti G, Meyer M, Eardley C, Mansell M, Wagner T (2009) Monitoring arthropods in a tropical landscape: relative effects of sampling methods and habitat types on trap catches. J Insect Conserv 13:103–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ne’eman G, Kevan PG (2001) The effect of shape parameters on maximal detection distance of model targets by honeybee workers. J Comp Physiol A 187:653–660PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Niesenbaum RA, Patselas MG, Weiner SD (1999) Does flower color change in Aster vimineus cue pollinators? Am Midl Nat 141:59–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Oliver I, Beattie AJ (1996) Invertebrate morphospecies as surrogates for species: a case study. Conserv Biol 10:99–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Picker MD, Midgley JJ (1996) Pollination by monkey beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Hopliini): flower and colour preferences. Afr Entomol 4:7–14Google Scholar
  41. Primer-E Ltd (2002) PRIMER 5. Version 5.2.9. Primer-E Ltd, PlymouthGoogle Scholar
  42. Pryke JS, Samways MJ (2011) Importance of using many taxa and having adequate controls for monitoring impacts of fire for arthropod conservation. J Insect Conserv doi:  10.1007/s10841-011-9404-9
  43. Pucci T (2008) A comparison of the parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera) at elevated versus ground yellow pan traps in a beech-maple forest. J Hymenopt Res 17:116–123Google Scholar
  44. Riley DG, Schuster DJ (1994) Pepper weevil adult response to colored sticky traps in pepper fields. Southwest Entomol 19:93–107Google Scholar
  45. Samways MJ, McGeoch MA, New TR (2010) Insect conservation: a handbook of approaches and methods. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  46. Southwood TRE, Henderson PA (2000) Ecological methods, 3rd edn. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  47. Stephen WP, Rao S (2005) Unscented color traps for non-Apis bees (Hymenoptera: Apiformes). J Kansas Entomol Soc 78:373–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Toler TR, Evans EW, Tepedino VJ (2005) Pan-trapping for bees (Hymenoptera: Apiformes) in Utah’s West Desert: the importance of color diversity. Pan-Pac Entomol 81:103–113Google Scholar
  49. Tuell JK, Isaacs R (2009) Elevated pan traps to monitor bees in flowering crop canopies. Entomol Exp Appl 131:93–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Van Kleunen M, Nanni I, Donaldson JS, Manning JC (2007) The role of beetle marks and flower colour on visitation by monkey beetles (Hopliini) in the greater Cape Floral Region, South Africa. Ann Bot 100:1483–1489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Weiss MR (1995) Floral color-change : a widespread functional convergence. Am J Bot 82:167–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Weiss MR, Lamont BB (1997) Floral color change and insect pollination: a dynamic relationship. Isr J Plant Sci 45:185–199Google Scholar
  53. Wells W, Decker T (2006) A comparison of three types of insect traps for collecting non-formicidae hymenopera on the island of Dominica. Southwest Entomol 31:59–68Google Scholar
  54. Wertlen AM, Niggebrugge C, Vorobyev M, de Ibarra NH (2008) Detection of patches of coloured discs by bees. J Exp Biol 211:2101–2104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Westphal C, Bommarco R, Carre G, Lamborn E, Morison N, Petanidou T, Potts SG, Roberts SPM, Szentgyorgyi H, Tscheulin T, Vaissiere BE, Woyciechowski M, Biesmeijer JC, Kunin WE, Settele J, Steffan-Dewenter I (2008) Measuring bee diversity in different European habitats and biogeographical regions. Ecol Monogr 78:653–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Williams NM, Minckley RL, Silveira FA (2001) Variation in native bee faunas and its implications for detecting community changes. Conserv Ecol 5:7Google Scholar
  57. Wilson JS, Griswold T, Messinger OJ (2008) Sampling bee communities (Hymenoptera: Apiformes) in a desert landscape: are pan traps sufficient? J Kansas Entomol Soc 81:288–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Conservation Ecology and EntomologyStellenbosch UniversityMatielandSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations