Shen WK, Sheldon RS, Benditt DG, Cohen MI, Forman DE, Goldberger ZD, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/HRS guideline for the evaluation and management of patients with syncope a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on clinical practice guidelines, and the Heart Rhythm Society. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;70:e39–e110.
Wieling W, Jardine DL, de Lange FJ, Brignole M, Nielsen HB, Stewart J, et al. Cardiac output and vasodilation in the vasovagal response: an analysis of the classic papers. Heart Rhythm. 2016;13:798–805.
Varosy PD, Chen LY, Miller AL, Noseworthy PA, Slotwiner DJ, Thiruganasambandamoorthy V. Pacing as a treatment for Reflex-mediated (vasovagal, situational, or carotid sinus hypersensitivity) syncope: a systematic review for the 2017 ACC/AHA/HRS Guideline for the Evaluation and Management of Patients With Syncope: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. Circulation. 2017;136:e123–35.
Randall WC, Milosavljevic M, Wurster RD, Geis GS, Ardell JL. Selective vagal innervation of the heart. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 1986;16:198–208.
Randall WC, Ardell JL, O’Toole MF, Wurster RD. Differential autonomic control of SAN and AVN regions of the canine heart: structure and function. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1988;275:15–31.
Chiou CW, Eble JN, Zipes DP. Efferent vagal innervation of the canine atria and sinus and atrioventricular nodes. The third fat pad. Circulation. 1997;95:2573–84.
Soejima K, Akaishi M, Mitamura H, Ogawa S, Sakurada H, Okazaki H, et al. Increase in heart rate after radiofrequency catheter ablation is mediated by parasympathetic nervous withdrawal and related to site of ablation. J Electrocardiol. 1997;30:239–46.
Pappone C, Stabile G, Oreto G, De Simone A, Rillo M, Mazzone P, et al. Inappropriate sinus tachycardia after radiofrequency ablation of para-Hisian accessory pathways. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1997;8:1357–65.
Pachon JC, Pachon EI, Pachon JC, Lobo TJ, Pachon MZ, Vargas RN, et al. “Cardioneuroablation”—new treatment for neurocardiogenic syncope, functional AV block and sinus dysfunction using catheter RF-ablation. Europace. 2005;7:1–13.
Scanavacca M, Hachul D, Pisani C, et al. Selective vagal denervation of the sinus and atrioventricular nodes, guided by vagal reflexes induced by high frequency stimulation, to treat refractory neurally mediated syncope. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2009;20:558–63.
Yao Y, Shi R, Wong T, Zheng L, Chen W, Yang L, et al. Endocardial autonomic denervation of the left atrium to treat vasovagal syncope: an early experience in humans. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2012;5:279–86.
Rebecchi M, de Ruvo E, Strano S, Sciarra L, Golia P, Martino A, et al. Ganglionated plexi ablation in right atrium to treat cardioinhibitory neurocardiogenic syncope. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2012;34:231–5.
Debruyne P. Cardio-neuromodulation with a multielectrode irrigated catheter: a potential new approach for patients with cardio-inhibitory syncope. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2016;27:1110–3.
Lellouche N, Buch E, Celigoj A, Siegerman C, Cesario D, De Diego C, et al. Functional characterization of atrial electrograms in sinus rhythm delineates sites of parasympathetic innervation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;50:1324–31.
Rivarola E, Hardy C, Sosa E, Hachul D, Furlan V, Raimundi F, et al. Selective atrial vagal denervation guided by spectral mapping to treat advanced atrioventricular block. Europace. 2016;18:445–9.
Zhao L, Jiang W, Zhou L, et al. Atrial autonomic denervation for the treatment of long-standing symptomatic sinus bradycardia in non-elderly patients. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2015;43:151–9.
Aksu T, Güler TE, Bozyel S, Özcan KS, Yalın K, Mutluer FO. Cardioneuroablation in the treatment of neurally mediated reflex syncope: a review of the current literature. Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars. 2017;45:33–41.
Aksu T, Golcuk E, Yalin K, Guler TE, Erden I. Simplified Cardioneuroablation in the treatment of reflex syncope, functional AV block, and sinus node dysfunction. Pacing ClinElectrophysiol. 2016;39:42–53.
Aksu T, Guler TE, Yalin K, Bozyel S. Vagal ganglia ablation: a little-known route in the treatment of vasovagal syncope. EP Lab Digest. 2017;17:26–7.
Brignole M, Menozzi C, Del Rosso A, Costa S, Gaggioli G, Bottoni N, et al. New classification of haemodynamics of vasovagal syncope: beyond the VASIS classification. Analysis of the presyncopal phase of the tilt test without and with nitroglycerin challenge. Vasovagal Syncope International Study Europace. 2000;2:66–76.
Kenny RA, O'Shea D, Parry SW. The Newcastle protocols for head-up tilt table testing in the diagnosis of vasovagal syncope, carotid sinus hypersensitivity, and related disorders. Heart. 2000;83:564–9.
Aksu T, Güler TE, Mutluer FO, Oto MA. Vagal denervation in atrial fibrillation ablation: a comprehensive review. Anatol J Cardiol. 2017;18:142–8.
Sun W, Zheng L, Qiao Y, Shi R, Hou B, Wu L, et al. Catheter ablation as a treatment for vasovagal syncope: long-term outcome of endocardial autonomic modification of the left atrium. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016;5(7):e003471.
Aksu T, Guler TE, Yalin K, Mutluer FO, Calò L. Catheter ablation of bradyarrhythmia: from the beginning to the future. Am J Med Sci. 2018;355:252–65.
Pachon JC, Pachon EI, Pachon MZC, Lobo TJ, Pachon JC, Santillana TG. Catheter ablation of severe neurally meditated reflex (neurocardiogenic or vasovagal) syncope: cardioneuroablation long-term results. Europace. 2011;13:1231–42.
Rivarola EW, Hachul D, Wu T, Pisani C, Hardy C, Raimundi F, et al. Targets and end points in cardiac autonomic denervation procedures. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2017;10(2):e004638.
Chapleau MW, Sabharwal R. Methods of assessing vagus nerve activity and reflexes. Heart Fail Rev. 2011;16:109–27.
Tomaino M, Romeo C, Vitale E, Kus T, Moya A, van Dijk N, et al. Physical counter-pressure maneuvers in preventing syncopal recurrence in patients older than 40 years with recurrent neurally mediated syncope: a controlled study from the third international study on Syncope of uncertain etiology (ISSUE-3). Europace. 2014;16:1515–20.
Tanaka K, Zlochiver K, Vikstrom KL, Yamazaki M, Moreno J, Klos M, et al. Spatial distribution of fibrosis governs fibrillation wave dynamics in the posterior left atrium during heat failure. Circ Res. 2007;101:839–47.
Jadidi AS, Cochet H, Shah AJ, Kim SJ, Duncan E, Miyazaki S, et al. Inverse relationship between fractionated electrograms and atrial fibrosis in persistent atrial fibrillation: combined magnetic resonance imaging and high-density mapping. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;62:802–12.